Farms to Pharms test #3

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Author:
lilyung1
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245637
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Farms to Pharms test #3
Updated:
2013-11-07 10:34:41
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farms pharmaceuticals
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vegetable oils - poisons (rosin)
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  1. Ephedrine, an alkaloid from Ephedra.
    • Ephedra is an odd gymnosperm with scale-like leaves from arid regions.
    • Tea made from the plant is an effective decongestant but also stimulates the heart which can cause cardiac arrest.
  2. Herbal Remedies (Dietary Supplements)
    • “All natural” plant products often contain the same or similar
    • compounds to those found in prescription medication  except that the compounds and amounts present are variable.


    Dosages are not easily reproduced and the possible presence of >1 active compound complicates the picture.

    Many herbal remedies are unregulated.
  3. Aloe vera
    Africa
    • Cut leaves yield a mucilaginous sap.
    • -chrysophanic acid for the treatment of psoriasis
    •  -anthraquinone glycosides (aloin collectively) which  promote healing by stimulating cell division and inhibiting bacterial and fungal infections.
  4. Aspirin
    • -anti-inflammatory
    • -antipyretic (fever reducing)
    • -analgesic (pain relieving)
    • -suppresses blood platelet aggregation
    • Aspirin works by inhibiting the enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX), which promotes prostaglandin (local hormone) synthesis.
  5. In the 1890’s, a related compound, salicylic acid was synthesized in the lab and proved to be an inexpensive treatment for many problems, but irritated the stomach.
    Shortly after, German chemist, Felix Hoffman, of the Bayer Company, modified salicylic acid to make aspirin which was less irritating.
  6. Willow
    Salix alba
    Europe
    • Salicin
    • Salicin from the bark or leaves of willow effectively relieved pain.
    • Usually, a tea was made by steeping bark in water.
  7. Digitalis purpurea
    Europe
    • Foxglove
    • When administered correctly,
    • cardiac glycosides can be used 
    • to slow the heart.
  8. Cardiac Glycosides (steroid + sugar molecule)
    Digitoxin and Digoxin
  9. Complex molecules with multiple rings. Many are toxic and meant to deter herbivores.
    • Steroids
    • Steroids are cholesterol derivatives.
  10. Autumn crocus
    Colchicum autumnale
    Europe, N. Africa
    • Colchicine
    • Colchicine inhibits microtubule assembly preventing cell division.
    • Used to double the chromosome number in plant cells.  
    • Also, used to treat gout.
  11. Pacific Yew
    Taxus brevifolia
    Pacific Northwest
    • Taxol
    • Taxol interferes with microtubule assembly preventing normal cell
    • division.  It is effective against some cancers, especially ovarian
    • cancer.
  12. Periwinkle
    Catharanthus roseus
    Madagascar
    • Vincristine
    • Vinblastine
    • These alkaloids prevent microtubule assembly and cell division.  
    • They are useful chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of 
    • certain cancers, especially childhood leukemia.
    • A cell must get permission to divide. Cancer cells make cells divide w/o premission. Makes a tumor. Tumors have ragged edges like a crab. Benign tumors are smooth.
  13. _________ dangerous nightshade; (atropine) used to make drops that dilate pupils, and used as a nerve gas antidote.
    Atropa belladonna
  14. papaverne
    diarrhea medicine
  15. ______ converted to heroin.
    morphine
  16. Solanaceous Alkaloids
    Atropine, Scopolamine, and Others
  17. ___________ has been used since ancient times to relieve pain and diarrhea.
    Tincture of opium
  18. Papaver somniferum
    Eurasia
    • Opium
    • The seed capsule (fruit) is scored to cut laticifers to obtain non-elastic latex.
  19. Plasmodium has become largely resistant to quinine since its first introduction in the 1630’s.
    Today, synthetic quinine derivatives are widely available for use in preventing and treating malaria.

    Example: chloroquine
  20. calorie
    energy required to heat 1gm water 1 degree celsius. 1Kcal=1000cal
  21. _________ is the casual agent of malaria.
    Plasmodium
  22. Cinchona officinalis
    Peru
    Quinine is extracted from the bark of a small tree that grows on the eastern slope of the Andes and is useful in the treatment of malaria.
  23. __________ are variable in structure although all
    contain nitrogen. They are alkaline (basic) and
    have a bitter taste.
    Alkaloids
  24. Many of the most important medicinal plants produce either ________ or __________.
    alkaloids or steroids.
  25. ________ is fossilized resin sometimes encapsulating insects or plant parts.
    Amber
  26. Rhus verniciflua
    East Asia
    Lacquer

    Lacquer resin is applied to wood repeatedly to make lacquerware.
  27. Natural resins include Frankincense and Myrrh.
    Both are from small trees native to North Africa and adjacent areas and are used as incense (resins burn to release volatile oils) or for embalming (antimicrobial properties retard decomposition).
  28. Resins
    • Polymerized terpenes usually associated with
    • essential oils.

    Produced by many plants by specialized secretory cells in response to wounding.

    Resins function to deter herbivores and pathogenic microbes. Note that antimicrobial properties may be related to the essential oils also present.
  29. Hevea brasiliensis
    Brasil
    Rubber
  30. Latex
    • Milky exudate confined to laticifer (specialized,
    •    elongated cell) vacuoles.

    Elastic latex contains rubber (typically, 30-40% of latex is small particles of rubber).

    Rubber is made of polymerized isoprene units.
  31. Acacia senegal
    Northeast Africa
    • Gum arabic is used in many products including
    • envelopes and stamps.
  32. Gums
    Carbohydrate polymers composed of sugars other than glucose – usually arabinose, galactose, mannose, or xylose.

    Gums, produced by plants in response to injury, help seal wounds barring pathogen entry or slowing pathogen advance.

    Most gums are not easily digested.
  33. Pectins
    Polysaccharides (carbohydrate polymers) found in the middle lamella (space between plant cells) that hold cells together
  34. Starch
    glucose polymer

    Two kinds:  Amylose – linear

    Amylopectin – branched
  35. __________ are macromolecules (carbohydrate polymers) that bind water molecules hindering their movement.
    Hydrogels

    A mutual attraction between the –OH (hydroxyl) groups on carbohydrate and water molecules is responsible.

    • Hydrogels include:   Starches
    •                             Pectins
    •                             Gums
  36. Copernicia cerifera
    Brazil
    Carnauba Wax
  37. Olive Oil
    Olea europea
    Mediterranean
    • Olive fruit is initially pressed
    • without heat to yield pure oil
    • (sold as virgin olive oil).

    • The fruit is pressed repeatedly
    • to extract more (but less pure)
    • oil.

    Because it is monounsaturated, olive oil has a long shelf life.
  38. Canola Oil(Rapeseed Oil)
    • Brassica napus
    • Mediterranean
  39. Oil is found within cells as oil bodies = ____
    oleosomes
  40. Oils are most prevalent in seeds where they store energy to sustain __________.
    germination
  41. Why are vegetable oils used in cooking?
    -they taste good

    • -they allow food to cook at a higher
    • temperature without burning
  42. Food is cooked primarily to make it easier to digest.
    Heat ________ (unravels) protein making it more accessible to digestive proteases. Instead of heat, acids and bases can be used to denature protein. Mechanical agitation can also denature protein.
    denatures
  43. Polyunsaturated triglycerides are called _____.
       
    When applied in thin layers and exposed to the air, the fatty acids polymerize forming a protective coating.
    drying oils.
  44. Oils can oxidize.O2 reacts with FA double bonds, causing FA breakdown and the oil to become _______.Preservatives help prevent oxidation.
    rancid
  45. __________ converts a vegetable oil (liquid) into a product similar to animal fat (solid) that has a longer shelf life.
    Hydrogenation
  46. How to make soap
    • Combine a triglyceride (animal fat/plant 
    • oil) with sodium hydroxide (or potassium 
    • hydroxide) and cook.

    The process (saponification) yields glycerol and fatty acid salts (soap).

    • Essential oils are added to make perfumed soap. Dyes impart color 
    • and alcohol makes soap translucent.  Incorporated air makes soap float.
  47. Unsaturated fatty acids are always _________ bonds.
    >1 C=C double
  48. Saturated fats are all ___________ bonds
    C-C single
  49. Liquid triglycerides at room temp are ________.
    oils
  50. Solid triglycerides at room temp are ______.
    fats
  51. _________ are composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
    triglycerides
  52. Oils belong to a group of storage lipids called?
    Glycerides

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