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Ephedrine, an alkaloid from Ephedra.
- Ephedra is an odd gymnosperm with scale-like leaves from arid regions.
- Tea made from the plant is an effective decongestant but also stimulates the heart which can cause cardiac arrest.
Herbal Remedies (Dietary Supplements)
- “All natural” plant products often contain the same or similar
- compounds to those found in prescription medication except that the compounds and amounts present are variable.
Dosages are not easily reproduced and the possible presence of >1 active compound complicates the picture.
Many herbal remedies are unregulated.
- Cut leaves yield a mucilaginous sap.
- -chrysophanic acid for the treatment of psoriasis
- -anthraquinone glycosides (aloin collectively) which promote healing by stimulating cell division and inhibiting bacterial and fungal infections.
- -antipyretic (fever reducing)
- -analgesic (pain relieving)
- -suppresses blood platelet aggregation
- Aspirin works by inhibiting the enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX), which promotes prostaglandin (local hormone) synthesis.
In the 1890’s, a related compound, salicylic acid was synthesized in the lab and proved to be an inexpensive treatment for many problems, but irritated the stomach.
Shortly after, German chemist, Felix Hoffman, of the Bayer Company, modified salicylic acid to make aspirin which was less irritating.
- Salicin from the bark or leaves of willow effectively relieved pain.
- Usually, a tea was made by steeping bark in water.
- When administered correctly,
- cardiac glycosides can be used
- to slow the heart.
Cardiac Glycosides (steroid + sugar molecule)
Digitoxin and Digoxin
Complex molecules with multiple rings. Many are toxic and meant to deter herbivores.
- Steroids are cholesterol derivatives.
Europe, N. Africa
- Colchicine inhibits microtubule assembly preventing cell division.
- Used to double the chromosome number in plant cells.
- Also, used to treat gout.
- Taxol interferes with microtubule assembly preventing normal cell
- division. It is effective against some cancers, especially ovarian
- These alkaloids prevent microtubule assembly and cell division.
- They are useful chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of
- certain cancers, especially childhood leukemia.
- A cell must get permission to divide. Cancer cells make cells divide w/o premission. Makes a tumor. Tumors have ragged edges like a crab. Benign tumors are smooth.
_________ dangerous nightshade; (atropine) used to make drops that dilate pupils, and used as a nerve gas antidote.
______ converted to heroin.
Atropine, Scopolamine, and Others
___________ has been used since ancient times to relieve pain and diarrhea.
Tincture of opium
- The seed capsule (fruit) is scored to cut laticifers to obtain non-elastic latex.
Plasmodium has become largely resistant to quinine since its first introduction in the 1630’s.
Today, synthetic quinine derivatives are widely available for use in preventing and treating malaria.
energy required to heat 1gm water 1 degree celsius. 1Kcal=1000cal
_________ is the casual agent of malaria.
Quinine is extracted from the bark of a small tree that grows on the eastern slope of the Andes and is useful in the treatment of malaria.
__________ are variable in structure although all
contain nitrogen. They are alkaline (basic) and
have a bitter taste.
Many of the most important medicinal plants produce either ________ or __________.
alkaloids or steroids.
________ is fossilized resin sometimes encapsulating insects or plant parts.
Lacquer resin is applied to wood repeatedly to make lacquerware.
Natural resins include Frankincense and Myrrh.
Both are from small trees native to North Africa and adjacent areas and are used as incense (resins burn to release volatile oils) or for embalming (antimicrobial properties retard decomposition).
- Polymerized terpenes usually associated with
- essential oils.
Produced by many plants by specialized secretory cells in response to wounding.
Resins function to deter herbivores and pathogenic microbes. Note that antimicrobial properties may be related to the essential oils also present.
- Milky exudate confined to laticifer (specialized,
- elongated cell) vacuoles.
Elastic latex contains rubber (typically, 30-40% of latex is small particles of rubber).
Rubber is made of polymerized isoprene units.
- Gum arabic is used in many products including
- envelopes and stamps.
Carbohydrate polymers composed of sugars other than glucose – usually arabinose, galactose, mannose, or xylose.
Gums, produced by plants in response to injury, help seal wounds barring pathogen entry or slowing pathogen advance.
Most gums are not easily digested.
Polysaccharides (carbohydrate polymers) found in the middle lamella (space between plant cells) that hold cells together
Two kinds: Amylose – linear
Amylopectin – branched
__________ are macromolecules (carbohydrate polymers) that bind water molecules hindering their movement.
A mutual attraction between the –OH (hydroxyl) groups on carbohydrate and water molecules is responsible.
- Hydrogels include: Starches
- Olive fruit is initially pressed
- without heat to yield pure oil
- (sold as virgin olive oil).
- The fruit is pressed repeatedly
- to extract more (but less pure)
Because it is monounsaturated, olive oil has a long shelf life.
Canola Oil(Rapeseed Oil)
- Brassica napus
Oil is found within cells as oil bodies = ____
Oils are most prevalent in seeds where they store energy to sustain __________.
Why are vegetable oils used in cooking?
-they taste good
- -they allow food to cook at a higher
- temperature without burning
Food is cooked primarily to make it easier to digest.
Heat ________ (unravels) protein making it more accessible to digestive proteases. Instead of heat, acids and bases can be used to denature protein. Mechanical agitation can also denature protein.
Polyunsaturated triglycerides are called _____.
When applied in thin layers and exposed to the air, the fatty acids polymerize forming a protective coating.
Oils can oxidize.O2 reacts with FA double bonds, causing FA breakdown and the oil to become _______.Preservatives help prevent oxidation.
__________ converts a vegetable oil (liquid) into a product similar to animal fat (solid) that has a longer shelf life.
How to make soap
- Combine a triglyceride (animal fat/plant
- oil) with sodium hydroxide (or potassium
- hydroxide) and cook.
The process (saponification) yields glycerol and fatty acid salts (soap).
- Essential oils are added to make perfumed soap. Dyes impart color
- and alcohol makes soap translucent. Incorporated air makes soap float.
Unsaturated fatty acids are always _________ bonds.
>1 C=C double
Saturated fats are all ___________ bonds
Liquid triglycerides at room temp are ________.
Solid triglycerides at room temp are ______.
_________ are composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
Oils belong to a group of storage lipids called?