Qtr 5 Nutrition Exam 1

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  1. Total energy expenditure
    • Basal Metabolic Rate 60-70%
    • Thermic effect of food
    • Activity thermogenesis
  2. Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE)
    Minimum energy to live lying down
  3. Resting Metabolic Rate
    • Same as BMR but factors in body size composition sex drugs temp
    • 10-20% higher than BMR
  4. Energy expended by the body internally to support life
    60% from heat produced by liver, brain, heart, kidney
    Resting energy expenditure (REE)
  5. Basal Metabolic Rate omits muscle-to-fat (t/f)
  6. what are the components measured in BMR?
    • Height
    • Weight
    • sex
    • age
  7. gold standard of Free Fat Measurment
  8. Free Fat Measurement that varies with H2O content
    Dual X-Ray absorption
  9. Obligatory: Thermic Effect of Food
    Digest absorb and metabolize nutrients
  10. Energy expended during ADLS
    Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis
  11. Direct Calorimetry
    Measure of energy expended as heat
  12. Indirect Calorimetry
    Oxygen consumption and CO2 production
  13. Monosaccharides
    Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
  14. Glucose + Fructose
  15. Glucose + Galactose
  16. Glucose + Glucose
  17. Most commonly caused by lack of phenylalinine hydroxylase
    • Phenylketomuria (PKU)
    • Cannot properly breakdown amino acids
  18. Plant based polysaccharides
    Starch: amylose and amylopectin
  19. most abundant dietary/functional fiber
  20. Main function of Beta-Glucans
    decreased total cholesterol
  21. Water soluble fiber 
    Xylan is main
  22. Fiber found in exoskeleton, arthropods, mollusks, lobsters, shrimp.
    Bind with molecules to reduce lipid absorption
    Chitin (Chitosan)
  23. very soluble fiber formed of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Binds minerals, lipids, bile acids

    Increased excretion decreased cholesterol
  24. Fiber that form gel
    decreased digestion
    increased glucose absorption
  25. Fiber that acts as a prebiotic specifically for bifidobacteria
    • Fructooligosaccharides (FOS)
    • Fructans
  26. Extracted from seaweed and algae
    Thickening agent and food stabilizer
    • Carrageenan
    • Algal Polysaccharides
  27. Synthetic polymers of sugar alcohols
    • Polydextrose
    • Polylols
  28. wood fiber stem seeds and bran layer of cereal
    Antioxidant (phenyl groups containing double bonds)
  29. FA: solid at room temp
    No double bonds
    Saturated Fats
  30. FA containing 1 double bond 
    Vulnerable to oxidation
  31. FA containing 2 or more double bonds
  32. Two primary fat stores of the body
    • Palmitic fatty acids (16:0)
    • Stearic fatty acids (18:0)
  33. Comprises the cell membrane
    • 1 saturated fatty acid
    • 1 polyunsaturated fatty acid
  34. C20:4 n-6
    Omega 6
  35. C20:5 n-3
    Omega 3
  36. alpha-linolenic -> EPA -> DHA
    Omega 3
  37. Linoleic -> Arachidonic -> Docosapentaenoic
    Omega 6
  38. Oleic -> Eicosatrienoic
    Omega 9
  39. Function of Eicosanoids
    • modify size and permeability of vessels
    • increased platelet activity
    • increased inflammation process
  40. Optimal ratio of O6-O3
    • 2:1 
    • 3:1
  41. Trans-fatty acid with 2H on same side of double bond
    Cis-isomer found in nature
  42. Function of trans-isomer fatty acid
    • Not flexible causing cell membrane to be stiff
    • Inhibit elongation and desaturation which is used to form DHA and EPA
  43. Triglyceride with phosphate at C3 
    Esterfied by nitrogen
  44. Primary component of lipid bilayer in VLDL, LDL, HDL

    Found in liver, yolk, peanuts
    Lecithin (phosphatidylcholine)
  45. Comprises 25% of meylin sheath
    Tay Sachs disease is associated with a deficiency in the metabolism of this lipid
  46. 1-5C units with alternating double and single bonds
    Terpene is synthesized from this lipid 
    Used by plants to transfer electrons
  47. Percentage of fat intake for total caloric intake
    • 20-30%
    • <300mg cholesterol
  48. Eight essential amino acids
    • Phenoalanine
    • Valine
    • Threonine
    • Tryptophan 
    • Isolacine
    • Methionine
    • Leucine
    • Lysine
  49. What two amino acids cannot be used to produce glucose?
    • Lysine
    • Threonine
  50. What is the recommended daily intake of protein?
    • 0.8g/kg of body weight
    • 10-15% dietary intake
  51. Branch chain amino acids
    • Leucine
    • Isoleucine 
    • Valine
  52. Most highly concentrated amino acid in muscle plasma

    Preferred energy source of lymphocytes
  53. G cells
    Secrete gastrin which stimulates HCL and pepsinogen secretions
  54. S cells
    Secretin in duodenum stimulates bicarbonate release in pancreas
  55. I cells
    Secrete Cholecystokinin (CCK) causes a release of pancreatic enzymes and bile. Stimulated by fat in duodenum.
  56. Incretin
    • secreted by GIP
    • increases insulin secretion
    • decreases glucagon
Card Set
Qtr 5 Nutrition Exam 1
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