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What are the different types of nutritional deficiency anaemia?
- Protein deficiency (starvation)
- Mineral deficiencies - iron, copper, cobalt
- Vitamin deficiency - B12, folate
What kind of RBCs are produced when an animal is suffering from an iron deficiency anaemia?
What are some of the causes of iron deficiency anaemia?
- Decreased iron intake - seen in fast growing, large breed pups and suckling pigs
- Chronic blood loss - GI ulceration or neoplasia, inflammatory GI disease, parasites, clotting disorders
During inflammation there is said to be a functional iron deficiency. What does this mean?
There is enough iron in the body but it has become sequestered by macrophages
How can renal disease cause anaemia?
The bone marrow fails to function correctly due to decreased EPO production by the kidneys
When the production of multiple cell lines in the bone marrow is reduction what is this type of anaemia called?
What causes aplastic anaemia?
- Idiopathic (don't know the cause)
- Drugs, chemicals - e.g. chemotherapy
- Radiation - eg nuclear radiation will damage cells that turnover quickly
- Infectious agents e.g. parvovirus, FeLV
What is pancytopenia?
A reduction or absence of all blood cell lines
What is polythaemia/erythrocytosis?
Abnormally increased red cell mass (increase in RBC, HCT/PCV, Hb)
What can be the cause of relative polycythaemia? (The most commonly encountered form of polycythaemia)
- Dehydration - there is less plasma so there is an increase in the concentration of RBCs (rather than an increase in mass)
- Splenic contraction in excitable animals - adrenaline causes the spleen to contract so all the stored RBCs are pushed into the circulation. This causes an increase in RBC count. This is transient and should disappear within 30mins.
What causes primary absolute polycythaemia?
Uncontrolled expansion of red cell mass that is not controlled by EPO. It is caused by a chronic myeloproliferative disorder (which causes the bone marrow to produce RBCs uncontrollably) that is very rare in animals.
What causes secondary absolute polycythaemia?
Excess EPO production
Excess EPO production can either be appropriate or inappropriate. What does this mean?
- Hypoxia causes appropriate excess EPO production. Causes of chronic hypoxia include CV disease and chronic respiratory disease
- Hypoxia does not cause inappropriate excess EPO production. The causes of this are kidney neoplasms or non-neoplastic disorders (e.g. cysts) and other non-renal neoplasms.
What clinical signs would you expect for polycythaemia that was
- a) tacky mucus membranes, sunken eyes, increased skin tent
- b) neurological (hyperviscosity), weakness, cyanosis/hyperaemia, signs attributable to underlying process (if secondary to chronic lung disease etc)