Cardiac Pathology

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Author:
Porky
ID:
245653
Filename:
Cardiac Pathology
Updated:
2013-11-07 17:59:10
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Cardiac Pathology
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Description:
4 cardiac pathology lectures
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  1. Response to Heart Failure
    (1) ↑ blood entering during diastole

    = ↑ preload → eccentric hypertrophy


    • (2) ↑ resistance against heart during systole
    • = ↑ afterload → concentric hypertrophy
  2. Origin and Sequelae of Pericarditis
    • - haematogenous (septicaemia)  -cattle, pigs
    • - from surrounding tissue infection  -cattle, pigs, sheep
    • - traumatic penetration of pericardium  -oes./retic.=cattle, fratured rib=cattle, horses, dogs
    • - from primary myocarditis  -rare

    • > resolution  -never a clinical problem
    • > adhesion  -fibrin (after serofibrinous)→fibrosis - bread&butter (after purulent)
    • > constriction/atrophy  -gradual (constrictive pericarditis)
    • > myocarditis  -rare, associated with traumatic pericarditis
  3. Classification of Myocarditis
    • (1) Acute (supurative)
    • - septic emboli from non-suppurative foci lodging in heart vasculature
    • - from endocardium or pericardium

    • (2) Acute (non-suppurative)
    • - septicaemia or viraemia

    • (3) Chronic
    • - cardiomyocyte loss
    • - replacement by fibrous tissue
    • - may be a sequel of subclinical acute myocarditis (D+Cs)
  4. Consequences of Stenosis and Incompetence
    • LHS Stenosis                  
    • - LV concentric hypertrophy
    • - pulmonary congestion/ oedema

    • RHS Stenosis
    • - RV concentric hypertrophy
    • - caval venous congestion

    • LHS Incompetence
    • - LV eccentric hypertrophy
    • - peripheral hypotension
    • - pulmonary congestion (if severe)

    • RHS Incompetence
    • - RV eccentric hypertrophy
    • - caval venous congestion
  5. Origin and Sequelae of Endocarditis
    • - valvular trauma due to blood turbulence
    • - valve tissue aging
    • - avascularity of valves
    • - valve exposure to blood pathogens (+pathogen factors)

    • > rupture of friable vegetations with resulting septic embolism
    • (RHS→pulmonary embolism, LHS→myocardial/peripheral infarction/infection)
    • > valvular stenosis/ incompetence
  6. Cardiac Neoplasia
    • Primary Cardiac Neoplasms
    • (rare, no clinical signs unless affect function due to position)
    • - Haemangiosarcoma
    •  ↳RA/auricle/base RV
    • - 'Heart-base' tumours (chemodectomas)
    •   ↳in chemoreceptor cells in aortic and pulmonary bodies

    • Secondary Cardiac Neoplasms
    • - metastases from malignant tumours (D+Cs)
    • - lymphomas - part of multicentric lymphoid neoplasia
  7. Cor Pulmonae
    - R heart enlargement due to ↑ pulmonary resistance/ BP

    • Causes:
    • - primary chronic lung disease
    •   ↳fibrosis, emphysema, bronchiectasis
    • - pulmonary thromboembolism
    •   ↳metastatic neoplasia, parasitism
    • - high altitude disease
    •   ↳chronic hypoxia, hypocapnia & resp. alkalosis → pulmonary constriction/ hypertension and congestive heart failure
    • - mechanical obstruction or obliteration of pulmonary aa
    •   ↳fibrosis and neoplasia
    • - impairment of resp. movements
    •   ↳malformations, thoracic trauma

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