molecular genetics bio

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melissag94
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245667
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molecular genetics bio
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2013-11-11 16:14:28
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exam 3 molecular genetics powerpoint
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  1. the study of the precise chemical details of how genetic systems work
    molecular genetics
  2. hereditary chemical is a large molecule known as?
    • DNA
    • deoxyribose nucleic acid
  3. DNA is a polymer of?
    nucleotides
  4. raises the pH?
    base
  5. how many amino acids are needed to make a protein?
    20
  6. what does the nucleotide structure contain?
    • phosphate group
    • sugar
    • base
  7. what is the base of a nucleotide structure?
    5 carbon monosaccharide
  8. 4 bases?
    • adenine
    • thymine
    • guanine
    • cytosine
  9. what holds the 2 strands of dna together?
    sugar phosphate backbone
  10. A pairs with?
    T
  11. C pairs with?
    G
  12. who proposed that DNA is not a single stand, but a double helix
    james Watson and francis crick
  13. DNA must be capable of ?
    self replication
  14. DNA must be responsible for ?
    all genetically controlled phenotypic characteristics
  15. template strand?
    what is copied during DNA replication
  16. DNA replication?
    unwind parental strand and use that to make daughter strand by following base pairing rules
  17. template strand dictates?
    sequence of daughter strand
  18. mistakes CAN NOT happen during?
    dna replication
  19. what happens when dna replication is completed?
    there are two identical double stranded molecules
  20. synthesis reaction catalyzed by a family of enzymes referred to as a?
    DNA polymerase
  21. what does the polymerase system check its work for?
    to make sure everything is set up correctly
  22. what has a 2 part system of checking that gives you an error rate?
    dna polymerase
  23. susceptibility to light related to ?
    skin tone
  24. the master molecule?
    DNA
  25. DNA is not directly responsible for the?
    appearance of phenotypic characteristics
  26. proteins (enzymes) are responsible for  ?
    the appearance of traits
  27. DNA has the ______, proteins cause it to ___ ____
    • information
    • be expressed
  28. link between dna and proteins in phenotypic traits is?
    RNA
  29. the molecule that hooks up library with action molecules of protein
    RNA
  30. RNA has____ instead of ____
    • uracil
    • thymine
  31. RNA sugar?
    ribose
  32. DNA sugar?
    deoxyribose
  33. 99.9% of DNA in chromosomes is?
    nuclei
  34. RNA is found?
    everywhere
  35. RNA is ___ stranded
    single
  36. copying mechanism from DNA to RNA?
    transcription
  37. after transcription occurs, RNA is then transported out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm where?
    it will have a specific function depending on type
  38. ___ types of rna can be transcribed
    3
  39. carries the specific instructions on how to construct protein from the appropriate amino acids
    messenger RNA
  40. a structural RNA used to construct ribosomes
    ribosomal RNA
  41. a family of RNA's that transport amino acids to the ribosomes for incorporation into proteins
    transfer RNA
  42. information in DNA is _____ on to mRNA
    transcribed
  43. the information in mRNA is _____ in to protein
    translated
  44. moving from one language to another
    translated
  45. infectious proteins that can cause mad cow disease
    prions
  46. bovine sponigifer enspefolitis (BCE)?
    mad cow disease
  47. how do you get mad cow disease?
    by eating infected food
  48. requires a code to translate nucleotide sequences into amino acid sequences
    RNA directed to protein synthesis
  49. in translation, code must be large enough to accommodate all __ amino acids needed to make biological proteins
    20
  50. only __ possible nucleotides in translation
    4
  51. steps of translation?
    DNA to RNA to protein
  52. 2 nucleotides code for a single amino acid
    • doublet code
    • (Doesn't work)
  53. 3 nucleotide sequences
    • triplet code
    • (does work)
  54. triplet sequence is a ?
    codon
  55. smallest part of code that has meaning
    codon
  56. genetic code?
    triplet code
  57. initiation code?
    AUG
  58. stop codons?
    • UAA
    • UAG
    • UGA
  59. 2 important parts of tRNA?
    • anticodon
    • amino acid attachment point
  60. sytem of 2 nucleotides
    anticodon
  61. tRNA is bonded by a ?
    covalent bond
  62. stages of translation?
    • initiation
    • elongation
    • termination
  63. elongation?
    peptide bond forms between 1st and 2nd amino acid
  64. what happens after elongation?
    end up with 4 or 5 copies of same protein
  65. all genetic information is not constantly _____ and then ____
    • transcribed
    • translated
  66. humans have _______ cells controlled by approtximately _____ ____
    • 100 trillion
    • 30,000 genes
  67. function is controlling the expression of other genes
    regulatory proteins
  68. uncontrolled mitosis?
    cancer
  69. transformation of normal cell into malignant cell may be caused by?
    turning on of oncogenes
  70. normal part of human genome, active during development then turned off
    oncogenes
  71. abnormal activation can be caused by?
    • radiation
    • carcinogenic chemicals
    • viral alteration of DNA
  72. very rare in non smokers, abnormally high in smokers
    lung cancer

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