Chapter 9 Quiz 2

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b_davenport08
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245699
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Chapter 9 Quiz 2
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2013-11-08 10:09:44
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Muscles Muscle Tissue
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Muscles and muscle tissue
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  1. Which muscle attachment is it when epimysium of the muscle is fused to the peristeum of a bone?
    Directly
  2. Which muscle attachment has connective tissue wrapping extend beyond the muscle as a tendon or aponeurosis?
    Indirectly
  3. Sarcoplasm has numerous glycosomes and a unique oxygen-binding protein called what?
    myoglobin
  4. What contains the usual organelles, myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and T tubules?
    Skeletal Muscle FIBER
  5. What is densly packed, rodlike contractile elements?
    myofibrils
  6. What makes up most of the muscle volume?
    Myofibrils
  7. The arrangement of what within a fiber is such that a perfectly aligned repeating series of dark A bands and light I bands is evident?
    Myofibrils
  8. What is the smallest contractile unit of a muscle?
    Sarcomeres
  9. What is the region of a myofibril between two successive Z discs called?
    Sarcomeres
  10. What is composed of myofilaments made up of contractile proteins?
    Sarcomeres
  11. What are the two types of myofilaments?
    • Thick
    • Thin
  12. What type of myofilament is composed of the protein myosin?
    Thick filament
  13. What type of molecule has a rod-like tail and two globular heads?
    Myosin molecule
  14. In a myosin molecule, which part has two interwoven, heavy polypeptide chains?
    Tails
  15. In a myosin molecule, which part has two smaller, light polypeptide chains called cross bridges?
    Heads
  16. What type of myofilament are chiefly composed of the protein actin?
    Thin Filament
  17. The _____ contain the active sites to which myosin heads attach during contraction.
    subunits
  18. What 2 things are regulatory subunits bound to actin?
    • Tropomyosin
    • troponin
  19. What is a elaborate, smooth endoplasmic reticulum that mostly runs longitudinally and surrounds each myofibril?
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
  20. Paired terminal cisternae form what kind of cross channals?
    perpendicular cross channals
  21. What functions in the regulation of intracellular calcium levels?
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  22. Elongated tubes called what penetrate into the cell's interior at each A band-I band junction?
    T tubules
  23. T tubules associate with the paired terminal cisternae to for what?
    triads
  24. In order to contract, a skeletal muscle must:
    • Be stimulated by a nerve ending
    • Propagate an electrical current, or action potential, along its sarcolemma
    • Have a rise in intracellular Ca2+ levels, the final trigger for contraction
  25. Stimulation by a nerve ending is a step for what?
    Skeletal Muscle Contraction
  26. Propagate an electrical current, or action potential, along sarcolemma is a step in what?
    Skeletal Muscle Contraction
  27. To have a rise in intracellular Ca2+ levels is the final trigger in what?
    Skeletal Muscle COntraction
  28. Linking the electrical signal to the contraction is what in skeletal muscle contraction?
    excitation-contraction coupling
  29. What is a transient depolarization event that includes polarity reversal of a sarcolemma (or nerve cell membrane) and the propagation of an action potential along the membrane?
    Action Potential
  30. The outside (extracellular) face is _____, while the inside face is ______ in a polarized Sarcolemma.
    outside positive, inside negative
  31. The difference in charge in a polarized sarcolemma is the what?
    resting membrane potential
  32. What happens when Na+ enters the cell, and the resting potential is decreased?
    Depolarization occurs
  33. What has to be strong enough for an action potential to be initiated?
    Stimulus must be strong enough
  34. What has Axonal endings, which have small membranous sacs (synaptic vesicles) that contain the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
    Neuromuscular Junction
  35. What binds its receptors at the motor end plate?
    ACh (acetylcholine)
  36. Binding opens chemically (ligand) gated channels.
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
  37. Na+ and K+ diffuse out and the interior of the sarcolemma becomes less negative.
    Acetylcholine
  38. Which filaments slide past which filaments so that the actin and myosin filaments overlap to a greater degree?
    Thin slide past thick filaments
  39. In the relaxed state, which two filaments overlap only slightly?
    thin and thick
  40. Upon stimulation, what binds to actin to make the sliding begin?
    myosin heads
  41. During sliding, each ____ ____ binds and detaches several times during contraction, acting like a ratchet to generate tension and propel the thin filaments to the center of the sarcomere.
    myosin head
  42. As sliding occurs throughout the sarcomeres, what happens to the muscle?
    It shortens
  43. ACh bound to ACh receptors is quickly destroyed by the enzyme what?
    acetylcholinesterase
  44. what is the constant, slightly contracted state of all muscles, which does not produce active movement?
    Muscle Tone
  45. What keeps the muscle firm, healthy, and ready to respond to stimuli?
    muscle tone
  46. Spinal reflexes account for muscle tone by:
    • Activating one motor unit and then another.
    • Responding to activation of stretch receptors in muscles and tendons.
  47. In muscle metabolism, what is source is used directly for contractile activity?
    ATP
  48. How is ATP regenerated?
    • The interaction of ADP with creatine phosphate
    • Anaerobic glycolysis
    • Aerobic respiration
  49. What is it called when the muscle is in a state of physiological inability to contract?
    muscle fatigue
  50. When does muscle fatigue occur?
    • ATP production fails to keep pace with ATP use
    • There is a relative deficit of ATP, causing contractures
    • Lactic acid accumulates in the muscle
    • Ionic imbalances are present
  51. What can cause dramatic changes in muscle chemistry?
    Vigorous exercise
  52. For muscles to return to resting state what must happen? (4 things)
    • Oxygen reserves replenished
    • Lactic  acid converted to pyruvic acid
    • Glycogen stores replaced
    • ATP and CP reserves resynthesized
  53. The two types of fibers that assist with speed of contraction are what?
    slow and fast
  54. Oxidative fibers us which pathway?
    aerobic pathway
  55. The Glycolytic fibers use which pathway?
    anaerobic pathways
  56. Speed of contraction and ATP forming pathways define which 3 categories?
    • slow oxidative fivers
    • fast oxidative fibers
    • fast glycolytic fibers
  57. What is transmitted from cell to cell?
    Action potential
  58. Whole sheets o=f what muscle exhibit slow, synchronized contractions?
    Smooth muscle
  59. What is a group of inherited muscle-destroying diseases where muscles enlarge due to fat and connective tissue deposits
    Muscle Dystrophy

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