animal physiology ch 12 circulatory system

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animal physiology ch 12 circulatory system
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  1. blood volume of open system
    20-40%
  2. blood volume
    5-10%
  3. hemocoel
    lies between the ectoderm and endoderm
  4. hemolymph
    fluid contained within the hemocoel
  5. pressures in open circulatory systems are low, arterial pressures seldom exceed
    0.6-1.3 kilopascals
  6. insects have an open circulation, but they do not depend on it for oxygen transport, instead they have evolved __
    tracheal system
  7. peripheral circulation consist of
    arterial system, capillaries, and venous system
  8. lymphatic system
    in vertebrates has evolved to recover fluid lost to tissues from the blood in this manner
  9. ultrafiltration
    separation of an ultrafiltrate(fluid devoid of ccolloidal protein particles) from blood plasma
  10. circulatory system is divided into
    systemic circuit and respiratory or pulmonary circuit
  11. right side of the heart pumps blood through the
    pulmonary circuit
  12. left side pumps blood through the
    systemic circuit
  13. veins are
    low-pressure flexible structures
  14. venous system contains most of the
    blood acts as a reservoir
  15. mammalian heart has __ chambers
    4. 2 atria and 2 ventricles
  16. cardiac muscle fibers distinguishing features
    presence of gap junction
  17. myocardium (heart muscle) consist of __ types of fibers
    3
  18. myocardial cells in the sinus node and atrioventricular are
    auto rhythmic , weakly contractile, and exhibit very slow electrical conduction
  19. the largest myocardial cells
    found in inner surface of the ventricular wall weakly contractile but are specialized for fast electrical conduction and constitute the system for spreading excitation over the heart
  20. intermediate-sized myocardial cell
    strongly contractile and constitute the bulk of the heart
  21. systole
    contraction
  22. diastole
    relaxation
  23. in fish the pacemaker is situated in the
    sinus venosus
  24. sinoatrial node
    where most pacemakers are located
  25. pacemaker consists of
    group of small, weakly contractile, specialized muscle cells that are capable of spontaneous activity
  26. hearts are categorized by type of pacemaker
    neurogenic or myogenic
  27. ectopic pacemaker
    able to have irregular beats
  28. pacemaker potential
    brings the membrane to the threshold potential in less than a second. giving rise to another all-or-none cardiac action potential
  29. a faster pacemaker depolarization brings the membrane to firing level sooner thus
    increases the freq of firing and faster heart rate vice versa
  30. how does acetylcholine affect heartbeat
    slows it by increasing the K+ conductance and reducing the Ca2+ conductance of pacemaker cells
  31. Adenosine
    also slows down the heart by modifying K+ conductance
  32. norepinephrine
    accelerates the pacemaker potential increasing heart rate
  33. catecholamines
    bind to beta-adrenergic receptors on the cell surface, activating adenylate cyclase and increasing cAMP
  34. cardiac fibers ap begin with
    rapid depolarization that results from a large and rapid increase in Na + conductance
  35. PAcemaker potentials  begin with
    slow depolarization which depends on a stable Na+ conductance and decreasing K+ conductance
  36. depolarization of the plasma membrane is delayed
    hundreds of milliseconds during the plateau phase
  37. long duration of the cardiac AP produces a prolonged contraction
    so entire heart chamber can fully contract before any portion begins to relax
  38. prolonged plateau of cardiac AP results from
    maintenance of a high Ca2+ conductance and delay in subsequent increase in K+ conductance
  39. initial P-wave is associated with depolarization
    of the atrium
  40. QRS is associated with
    depolarization of the ventricle
  41. T-wave is associated with
    repolarization of the ventricle
  42. desmosomes
    anchoring structure that help with adhesion of cells at intercalated disks
  43. wave of excitation begins in the sinoatrial node and spreads over both atria at a velocity of
    0.8 ms^-1
  44. the atria are connected electrically to the ventricles only though the
    atrioventricular
  45. excitation through small junctional fibers velocity is slowed to about
    0.05 ms^-1
  46. junctional fibers are connected to nodal fibers which are connected via
    bundle of his
  47. purkinje fiber
    extend into the myocardium of the two ventricles
  48. endocardium
    internal lining of the heart wall
  49. epicardium
    external covering of the heart wall
  50. negative chronotropic effect
    decrease in heart rate due to ACh
  51. atrioventricular block
    high levels of ACh allowing ectopic pacemaker to take over
  52. catecholamines epinephrine and norepinepherine have three distinct positive effects on heart function:
    • -increase the rate of myocardial contractions (positive chronotropic effect)
    • -increase the force of myocardial contractions (positive inotropic effect)
    • -increase the speed of conduction of the wave of excitation over the heart (positive dromotropic effect)
  53. cardiac output
    the volume of blood pumped per unit time from a ventricle
  54. stroke volume
    volume of blood ejected form a ventricle by each beat of the heart
  55. end diastolic volume is determined by four parameters:
    • -venous filling pressure
    • -pressures generated during atrial contraction
    • -distensibility of the ventricular wall
    • -time available for filling the ventricle
  56. end systolic volume is determined by these two parameters:
    • -pressures generated during ventricular contraction
    • -pressures in the outflow channels from the heart
  57. many hearts have grooves and ridges within the chambers and vessels these:
    allow contraction to facilitate blood movements in other chambers, create complex patterns that direct and maintain momentum reducing energy
  58. cardiac muscles behave similarly to skeletal muscle in that:
    stretch of the relaxed muscle in a certain range results in the development of increased tension during contraction.
  59. contraction of cardiac muscle can be divided into two phases:
    isometric contraction and isotonic
  60. isometric contraction
    tension in the muscle and pressure in the ventricle increase rapidly
  61. isotonic contraction
    tension doesnt change
  62. cardiac muscles have a much higher capillary density and
    more mitochondria, also high myoglobin
  63. heart primary relies on __  to generate energy
    aerobic pathways
  64. adenosine
    cause dilation of coronary vessels, also reduces heart rate and energy expenditure
  65. pericardium
    connective tissue membrane surrounds the heart
  66. bradycardia
    slowing of the hear
  67. crocodilian reptiles have a heart with
    completely divided ventricle
  68. the __ side pumps blood to the lungs; the __ side pumps blood around the body
    right, left
  69. blood returning from the lungs enter the __ passes into the __, and is ejected into the
    left atrium,left ventricle, systemic circulation
  70. blood from the body collects in the __ passes into the __ and is pumped to the __
    right atrium, right ventricle, lungs
  71. valves prevent
    back flow of blood from the aorta to the ventricle, the atrium , and the veins
  72. atrioventricular valves
    bicuspid and tricuspid
  73. ductus arteriosus
    joins the pulmonary artery to the systemic arch, short large-diameter blood vessel
  74. heart functions of mammalian fetus features:
    • -blood flows from pulmonary to the systemic circuit
    • -most of the blood ejected by R ventricle is returned to the systemic circuit through ductus arteriosus
    • -blood flow through pulmonary circuit is greatly reduced
  75. in mammalian fetus
    lungs are collapsed
  76. at birth
    lungs are inflated, blood now passes into the pulmonary arteries,increasing venous return to the left side of the heart, placental circulation disappears, and resistance to flow increases markedly in the systemic circuit
  77. vena cava
    vein that empties into the right atrium
  78. foramen ovale
    opening in the interatrial septum
  79. bird embryo (egg)
    network of blood vessels called the chorioallantois
  80. arteries have the __ cross sectional area whereas capillaries have the __
    smallest, largest
  81. the slow of blood in the capillaries has functional significance because
    time-consuming exchange of substances between blood and tissues take place
  82. laminar flow
    smaller vessels streamlined blood flow, parabolic velocity profile. silent
  83. viscosity is a measure of
    resistance to sliding between adjacent layers of fluid
  84. __have elastic walls
    vessel
  85. turbulent flow
    fluid moves in directions not aligned with he axis of flow, thus increasing the energy needed to move. noisy
  86. reynolds number
    indicates whether flow will be laminar or turbulent. flow will be turbulent if Re is greater than 1000
  87. hematocrit
    volume of red blood cells per unit volume of blood
  88. compliance
    ratio of change in volume to change in pressure
  89. poiseuille's law
    • flow of fluid through pipes
  90. the __ are very compliant
    venous system
  91. blood pumped from the __ carries oxygenated blood via the __system to capillary beds in tissues
    left ventricle,arterial
  92. ___ system returns the deoxygenated blood to the __
    systemic venous,right atrium
  93. endothelium
    lines the lumen of all blood vessels
  94. walls of larger blood vessel comprise of three layers:
    tunica adventitia, tunica media, tunica intima
  95. tunica adventitia
    limiting fibrous outer coat
  96. tunica media
    middle layer, consists of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle
  97. tunica intima
    inner layer , closest to lumen, composed of endothelial cells and elastic fibers
  98. vasa vasorum
    thick walls of large blood vessels that require own capillary circulation
  99. arteries serve 4 main functions
    • 1. act as a conduit for blood between the heart and capillaries
    • 2.act as a pressure reservoir for forcing blood into the small-diameter arterioles
    • 3. damp the oscillations in pressure and flow generated by the heartbeat and produce a more even flow of blood into the capillaries
    • 4.control the distribution of blood to different capillary networks via selective constriction of the terminal branches of the arterial tree
  100. countercurrent exchanges
    in many animals arteries and veins run next to each other with their blood flows moving in opposite directions. this causes exchange of heat
  101. rete mirabile
    countercurrent arrangement of small arterioles and venules
  102. capillaries size
    1mm long and 3-10 um. large enough for red blood cells but white blood cells may be trapped
  103. arterioles are surrounded by
    smooth muscle
  104. capillary walls are completely devoid of
    connective tissue and smooth muscle, consist of a single later of endothelial cells surrounded by a basement of membrane of collagen and muscopolysaccharide
  105. pericyte cells
    elongated cells able to contract wrap around capillaries
  106. capillaries are classified into 3 types:
    continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries,sinusoidal capillaries
  107. continuous capillaries
    least permeable located in muscle, neuronal tissue, the lungs connective tissues and exocrine glands
  108. fenestrated capillaries
    exhibit intermediate permeability, found in renal glomerulus, and endocrine glands
  109. sinusoidal capillaries
    most permeable, present in liver, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, and adrenal cortex
  110. arterioles
    tiny branch of an artery. nearest a capillary
  111. venules
    small vessel that connects a capillary bed
  112. edema
    net filtration of fluid across capillary walls result in increase tissue volume
  113. lymph
    transparent milky fluid. collected from interstitial fluid in all of the body and returned to blood via lymphatic system.
  114. thoracic duct
    lymph vessels drain via,into low pressure region usually close to the heart
  115. filarisasis
    disease invades lymphatic system causing blockage, edema result elephantiasis
  116. lymph hearts
    reptiles and amphibians have them
  117. lymphocytes
    type of leukocyte ability to recognize foreign substances
  118. lymphocytes 3 ways respond
    • 1. b cells develop into plasma cells,which secrete antibodies that bind and mark pathogens
    • 2.Tc cells recognizes tumors, this stimulates Tc to mature into active cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    • 3. recognition of antigen by Th cells stimulate and secrete cytokines, promote growth of B, Tc Cells ,and macrophages increasing strength of immune
  119. extravastation
    leukocytes leaving lymphatic and circulatory systems
  120. excluding aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves, arteries
    dont have valves to prevent back flow
  121. vasoconstriction and vasodilation can be induced by
    chemicals as well as by autonomic nervous system activity
  122. the normal relative blood viscosity is approx
    4x water

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