med vocab ch 14-15.txt

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med vocab ch 14-15.txt
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  1. Adrenal glands, suprarenal glands
    pair of glands located on top of the kidneys that secrete hormones that aid in metabolism, electrolyte balance, and stress reactions; each gland consist of an outer portion, called the adrenal cortex, and an inner portion, called the adrenal medulla
  2. Hypothalamus
    part of the brain located near the pituitary gland that controls the release of hormones by the pituitary gland
  3. Islets of Langerhans
    endocrine cells inside the pancreas that secrete hormones that aid carbohydrate and glucose metabolism
  4. Ovaries
    female reproductive glands attached to the uterus that produce hormones and release eggs
  5. Parathyroid glands
    four small glands located behind the thyroid that regulate calcium and phosphorus levels in the bloodstream and bones
  6. Pineal gland, pineal body
    small, cone-shaped gland located int he brain that secretes melatonin, which affects sleep-wake cycles and reproduction
  7. Pituitary gland
    pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain that secrets hormones that stimulate the function of other endocrine glands; also known as the "master gland"; divided into anterior and posterior lobes
  8. Testes, testicles
    male reproductive glands located in the scrotum, which produce sperm and testosterone
  9. Thymus gland
    gland in the mediastinum that secretes a hormone that regulates the immune system
  10. Thyroid gland
    gland located below the larynx that secretes a hormone that is needed for cell metabolism and energy; the largest endocrine gland; has two lobes connected by a tissue called the isthmus
  11. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    stimulates the adrenal cortex
  12. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    regulates the ovaries and testicles; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and sperm production in males
  13. Growth hormone (GH)
    regulates body growth
  14. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    stimulates secretion of progesterone in females and testosterone in males
  15. Prolactin
    stimulates milk production
  16. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    stimulates the thyroid gland
  17. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    stimulates water absorption by the kidneys
  18. Oxytocin
    stimulates uterine contractions
  19. Melatonin
    affects sleep-wake cycles and reproduction
  20. Thyroxine (T4)
    regulates metabolism
  21. Triiodothyronine (T3)
    regulates metabolism
  22. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in blood and bones
  23. Insulin
    regulates blood glucose levels
  24. Thymosin
    regulates immune responses
  25. Aldosterone
    regulates electrolyte levels
  26. Cortisol
    aids in metabolism and also aids the body during stress
  27. Epinephrine and norepinephrine
    aid body during stress by raising heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration
  28. Estrogen and progesterone
    affect the development of female sexual organs and secondary sexual characteristics; regulate menstrual cycle and pregnancy
  29. Testosterone
    affects development of sexual organs in males and secondary sexual characteristics
  30. acr/o
    extremity, tip
  31. aden/o
    gland
  32. adren/o, adrenal/o
    adrenal glands
  33. calc/i
    calcium
  34. cortic/o
    cortex
  35. crin/o
    to secrete
  36. dips/o
    thrist
  37. endocrin/o
    endocrine
  38. gluc/o, glucos/o, glyc/o, glycos/o
    glucose, sugar
  39. hormon/o
    hormone
  40. kal/i
    potassium
  41. natr/i
    sodium
  42. pancreat/o
    pancreas
  43. parathyroid/o
    parathyroid glands
  44. thym/o
    thymus gland
  45. thyr/o, thyroid/o
    thyroid gland
  46. eu-
    good, normal
  47. hyper-
    above, excessive
  48. hypo-
    below, deficient
  49. poly-
    many, much
  50. -al, -ic
    pertaining to
  51. -emia
    blood (condition of)
  52. -ism
    condition of
  53. -megaly
    enlargement
  54. -oid
    resembling
  55. -uria
    urine, urination
  56. Cortical
    pertaining to the cortex
  57. Endogenous
    produced inside the body
  58. Euthyroid
    normal thyroid
  59. Exogenous
    produced outside of the body
  60. Metabolism
    all physical and chemical changes that occur in tissue
  61. Pancreatic
    pertaining to the pancreas
  62. Thymic
    pertaining to the thymus gland
  63. Acidosis
    abnormal accumulation of acidic waste products in the blood
  64. Acromegaly
    enlargement of the extremities caused by excessive production of growth hormone
  65. Addison disease
    disease caused by deficiency of cortisol production by the adrenal glands; characterized by darkening of the skin, weakness, and loss of appetite
  66. Adenalgia
    pain in a gland
  67. Adenitis
    inflammation of a gland
  68. Adenomegaly
    enlargement of a gland
  69. Adrenalitis
    inflammation of an adrenal gland
  70. Adrenomegaly
    enlargement of an adrenal gland
  71. Adrenopathy
    disease of the adrenal gland
  72. Calcipenia
    deficiency of calcium
  73. Congenital hypothyroidism
    condition caused by absence or atrophy of the thyroid gland present at birth characterized by mental deficiency and dwarfism (formerly known as cretinism)
  74. Cushing syndrome
    disease caused by excessive cortisol production by the adrenal glands characterized by fat pads in the chest and abdomen, moon-shaped face, and skin pigmentation
  75. Diabetes insipidus (DI)
    disorder caused by deficiency of antidiuretic hormone production by the pituitary gland resulting in excessive urination and excessive thirst
  76. Diabetes mellitus (DM)
    disorder caused by deficiency of insulin and/or insulin resistance causing poor carbohydrate metabolism and high blood glucose levels
  77. Type 1 diabetes mellitus
    diabetes caused by a total lack of insulin production; usually develops in childhood, and patients require insulin replacement therapy to control the disorder
  78. Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    diabetes caused by either a lack of insulin or the body's inability to use insulin efficiently; usually develops in middle-aged or older adults, and patients usually do not require insulin replacement therapy to control the disorder
  79. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
    excessive ketones in blood due to breakdown of steroid fats for energy; a complication of diabetes mellitus; if left untreated, can lead to coma and death
  80. Endocrinopathy
    disease of an endocrine gland
  81. Exophthalmos
    protruding or bulging eyes
  82. Gigantism
    condition of excessive body growth caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland
  83. Glucosuria, glycosuria
    glucose in the urine
  84. Goiter
    enlargement of the thyroid gland
  85. Graves disease
    condition of excessive secretion of thyroid hormone causing goiter and exophthalmos
  86. Hashimoto thyroiditis, Hashimoto disease
    autoimmune disease causing chronic thyroiditis
  87. Hirsutism
    excessive hair growth or hair growht in unusal places
  88. Hypercalcemia
    high levels of calcium in the blood
  89. Hyperglycemia
    high levels of glucose or sugar in the blood
  90. Hyperkalemia
    high levels of potassium in the blood
  91. Hypernatremia
    high levels of sodium in the blood
  92. Hypoparathyroidiism
    deficient hormone production by the parathyroid glands
  93. Hypothyroidism
    deficient hormone production by the thyroid gland
  94. Ketosis
    excessive ketones in the blood
  95. Myxedema
    severe hypothyroidism in an adult characterized by pale dry skin, brittle hair, and sluggishness
  96. Pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  97. Polydipsia
    excessive thirst
  98. Polyuria
    excessive and frequent urination
  99. Tetany
    spasms of nerves and muscles due to low levels of calcium in the blood caused by deficient production of parathyroid hormone
  100. Thyroiditis
    inflammation of the thyroid gland
  101. Thyromegaly
    enlargement of the thyroid gland
  102. Thyrotoxicosis
    condition of excessively high levels of thyroid hormone (either endogenous or exogenous)
  103. Blood glucose, blood sugar
    test to measure the amount of glucose in the blood
  104. Electrolyte panel
    blood test to measure the amount of sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide in the blood
  105. Fasting blood glucose (FBG)
    blood test that measures the amount of glucose in the blood after fasting for at least 8 hours
  106. Glucometer
    device for measuring blood glucose levels from a drop of blood obtained by a fingerstick
  107. Glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    blood test that measures the amount of glucose int he blood after administering a dose of glucose to the patient; used to gauge the body's ability to metabolize glucose
  108. Glycosylated hemoglobin
    blood test that indicates the amount of glucose in the blood over the previous few months; used to indicate how well diabetes mellitus is being controlled
  109. Thyroid function tests
    blood tests that measure thyroid hormone levels in the bood
  110. Thyroid-stimulating hormone level
    blood test that measures the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone int he blood; used to diagnose hyperthyroidism or to monitor thyroid replacement therapy
  111. Thyroxine level
    blood test that measures the amount of thyroxine int he blood to diagnose hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism
  112. Radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU), 131I uptake test
    test of thyroid function by measuring the uptake of iodine by the thyroid
  113. Thyroid scan
    scan of the thyroid gland using a radioactive substance, ultrasound, or computed tomography to show the size, shape, and position of the thyroid gland
  114. Adenectomy
    excision of a gland
  115. Adrenalectomy
    excision of an adrenal gland
  116. Pancreatetomy
    excision of the pancreas
  117. Parathyroidectomy
    excision of a parathyroid gland
  118. Thymectomy
    excision of the thymus gland
  119. Thyroidectomy
    excision of the thyroid gland
  120. Thyroidotomy
    incision into the thyroid gland
  121. Thyroparathyroidectomy
    excision of the thyroid and parathyroid glands
  122. Antidiabetic
    drug used to treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood
  123. Antithyroid
    drug used to treat overproduction of thyroid hormone
  124. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), insulin pump
    infusion of insulin to subcutaneous tissues by a device worn on the body
  125. Insulin therapy
    method used to treat diabetes mellitus by replacing natural insulin
  126. Hormone replacement therapy
    method use to replace a hormone normally produced by the body
  127. Endocrinology
    medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the endocrine system
  128. Endocrinologist
    physician who specializes in endocrinology
  129. ACTH
    adrenocorticotropic hormone
  130. ADH
    antidiuretic hormone
  131. CSII
    continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
  132. DI
    diabetes insipidus
  133. DKA
    diabetic ketoacidosis
  134. DM
    diabetes mellitus
  135. FBG
    fasting blood glucose
  136. FSH
    follicle-stimulating hormone
  137. GH
    growth hormone
  138. GTT
    glucose tolerance test
  139. LH
    luteinizing hormone
  140. PTH
    parathyroid hormone
  141. RAIU
    radioactive iodine uptake
  142. T3
    triiodiothyronine
  143. T4
    thyroxine
  144. TSH
    thyroid-stimulating hormone
  145. Bone marrow
    soft tissue within bone, with multiple functions including production of blood cells
  146. Cancellous bone, spongy bone
    meshlike bone tissue
  147. Compact bone
    harder, denser bone
  148. Diaphysis
    the shaft of a long bone
  149. Endosteum
    membrane within medullary cavity
  150. Epiphysis
    the wider ends of a long bone
  151. Epiphyseal plate
    the growth are of a long bone
  152. Metaphysis
    the flared section of a long bone between the diaphysis and epiphysis
  153. Os, ossa
    bone
  154. Osteoblast
    bone-forming cell
  155. Osteoclast
    a cell that helps remove osseous (bony) tissue
  156. Osteocyte
    bone cell
  157. Periosteum
    membrane surrounding a bone
  158. Axial skeleton
    bones of the skull, spine, and chest
  159. Appendicular skeleton
    bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and pelvis
  160. Thorax
    the chest
  161. Acetabulum
    the socket of the pelvic bone where the femur articulates
  162. Acromion
    lateral upper section of the scapula
  163. Calcaneus
    bone of the heel
  164. Carpal bones
    the eight bones of the wrist
  165. Clavicle
    collarbone
  166. Cranium
    the skull; composed of eight bones
  167. Femur
    bone of the upper leg
  168. Fibula
    smaller, outer bone of the lower leg
  169. Humerus
    bone of the upper arm
  170. Hyoid
    bone beneath the mandible
  171. Lamina
    posterior section of a vertebra
  172. Mandible
    lower bone of the jaw
  173. Maxilla
    upper bone of the jaw
  174. Metacarpal bones
    the five bones of the palm of the hand
  175. Metatarsal bones
    the five ones of the foot
  176. Patella
    kneecap
  177. Pelvic bone
    the hip bone, composed of three fused bones on each side
  178. Ischium
    posterior lower section of the pelvic bone
  179. Ilium
    upper section of the pelvic bone
  180. Pubis
    anterior lower section of pelvic bone; pubic bone
  181. Phalanges
    the bones of the fingers and toes; 14 in each hand or foot
  182. Radius
    the outer of two bones of the lower arm
  183. Ribs
    long curved bones that form the bony wall of the chest
  184. Scapula
    shoulder blade
  185. Sternum
    anterior bone of thorax; breast bone
  186. Tarsal bones
    the seven bones of the ankle
  187. Tibia
    larger inner bone of the lower leg
  188. Ulna
    the more inner of two bones of the lower arm
  189. Vertebra
    a bone of the spine
  190. Cervical vertebrae (C1-C7)
    bones of neck
  191. Thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12)
    bones of midspine
  192. Lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5)
    bones of lower back
  193. Sacrum
    five fused vertebrae below the lumbar spine
  194. Coccyx
    four fused vertebrae at the lower end of the spine, below the sacrum; the tailbone
  195. Xiphoid process
    lower section of the sternum
  196. Articulation
    the site where bones come together
  197. Bursa
    a fluid-filled fibrous sac within some joints
  198. Cartilage
    dense connective tissue attached to bone in many joints
  199. Synovial joint, diarthrosis
    a joint that moves freely; the joint cavity contains synovial fluid
  200. Intervertebral disk
    platelike structure of connective tissue between vertebrae
  201. Ligament
    band of strong connective tissue joining bones
  202. Meniscus
    cartilage structure in the knee
  203. Suture
    an immovable joint, such as that which joins the bones of the skull
  204. Symphysis
    a joint that moves only slightly
  205. Synovial fluid
    lubricating fluid in a freely moving joint
  206. Tendon
    band of fibrous connective tissue attaching a muscle to a bone
  207. Abduction
    moving away from the midline
  208. Adduction
    moving toward the midline
  209. Circumduction
    moving a circular manner
  210. Inversion
    turning inward
  211. Eversion
    turning outward
  212. Dorsiflexion
    bending foot upward
  213. Plantar flexion
    bending foot downward
  214. Extension
    motion that increases the joint angle
  215. Flexion
    motion that decreases the joint angle
  216. Pronation
    turning downward (palm of hand or sole of foot)
  217. Supination
    turning upward (palm of hand or sole of foot)
  218. Rotation
    moving in a circular direction around an axis
  219. Agonist
    skeletal muscle that creates a movement by contracting; prime mover
  220. Antagonist
    skeletal muscle that opposes an agonist muscle and relaxes when the agonist contracts
  221. Cardiac muscle
    heart muscle
  222. Fascia
    sheet of connective tissue covering a muscle
  223. Fascicle
    bundle of muscle fibers
  224. Insertion of muscle
    end of muscle attached to bone that moves during contraction
  225. Origin of muscle
    end of muscle attached to bone that does not move during contraction
  226. Smooth muscle, unstriated muscle
    type of muscle not under voluntary control; present in internal organs
  227. Skeletal muscle, striated muscle
    type of muscle under voluntary control ("striated" refers to light and dark bands in muscle fibers)
  228. Tonus
    muscle tone
  229. ankyl/o
    stiff
  230. arthr/o, articul/o
    joint
  231. burs/o
    bursa
  232. carp/o
    carpal bones
  233. chondr/o
    cartilage
  234. clavic/o, clavicul/o
    clavicle
  235. cost/o
    rib
  236. cervic/o
    neck
  237. carni/o
    cranium, skull
  238. disk/o
    disk or disc
  239. fasci/o
    fascia, band
  240. femor/o
    femur
  241. fibul/o
    fibula
  242. humer/o
    humerus
  243. ili/o
    ilium
  244. ischi/o
    ischium
  245. kinesi/o, kinet/o
    movement
  246. kyph/o
    humpback
  247. lei/o
    smooth
  248. lamin/o
    lamina
  249. lord/o
    curved, bent
  250. madibul/o
    mandible
  251. lumb/o
    lumbar region, lower back
  252. maxill/o
    maxilla
  253. menisc/o
    meniscus
  254. my/o, myos/o, muscul/o
    muscle
  255. myel/o
    bone marrow, spinal cord
  256. oste/o
    bone
  257. patell/o
    patella
  258. pelv/i, pelv/o
    pelvis, pelvic cavity
  259. phalang/o
    phalanges
  260. pub/o
    pubis
  261. rachi/o
    spine
  262. radi/o
    radius
  263. rhabd/o
    striated muscle
  264. sacr/o
    sacrum
  265. scapul/o
    scapula
  266. scoli/o
    crooked, twisted
  267. stern/o
    sternum
  268. synovi/o
    synovial joint or fluid
  269. tars/o
    tarsal bones
  270. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
    tendon
  271. thorac/o
    thorax, chest
  272. ton/o
    tone, tension
  273. uln/o
    ulna
  274. vertebr/o, spondyl/o
    vertebra
  275. inter-
    between
  276. intra-
    within
  277. supra-
    above
  278. sub-
    below, beneath
  279. sym-, syn-
    together, with
  280. -algia
    pain
  281. -asthenia
    weakness
  282. -centesis
    puncture to aspirate
  283. -clasia, -clasis, -clast
    to break
  284. -desis
    surgical fixation, binding
  285. -ectomy
    excision, surgical removal
  286. -itis
    inflammation
  287. -osis
    abnormal condition
  288. -physis
    growth
  289. -plasty
    surgical repair, reconstruction
  290. -porosis
    pore, passage
  291. -rrhaphy
    suture
  292. -schisis
    to split
  293. -trophy
    development, nourishment
  294. Carpal
    pertaining to the carpal bones
  295. Costovertebral
    pertaining to the ribs and thoracic vertebrea
  296. Cranial
    pertaining to the skull
  297. Femoral
    pertaining to the femur
  298. Humeral
    pertaining to the humerus
  299. Iliofemoral
    pertaining to the ilium and femur
  300. Intercostal
    pertaining to the area between the ribs
  301. Intervertebral
    pertaining to the area between the vertebrae
  302. Intracranial
    pertaining to the area within the skull
  303. Ischiofemoral
    pertaining to the ischium and femur
  304. Lumbar
    pertaining to the lower back
  305. Lumbocostal
    pertaining to the lumbar vertebrae and ribs
  306. Lumbosacral
    pertaining to the lumbar vertebrae and sacrum
  307. Osseous
    pertaining to bone
  308. Pelvic
    pertaining to the pelvis or pelvic cavity
  309. Sacral
    pertaining to the sacrum
  310. Sacrovertebral
    pertaining to the sacrum and the vertebrae above
  311. Sternoclavicular
    pertaining to the sternum and clavicle
  312. Sternoid
    resembling the sternum
  313. Subcostal
    pertaining to the area below a rib or the ribs
  314. Submandibular
    pertaining to the area below the mandible
  315. Submaxillary
    pertaining to the area below the maxilla
  316. Subscapular
    pertaining to the area below the scapula
  317. Substernal
    pertaining to the area below the sternum
  318. Suprapatellar
    pertaining to the area above the patella
  319. Suprascapular
    pertaining to the area above the scapula
  320. Synovial
    pertaining to, containing, or consisting of synovial fluid
  321. Ankylosing spondylitis
    arthritis of the spine
  322. Ankylosis
    abnormal condition of stiffening or fixation of a joint
  323. Arthralgia
    condition of pain in a joint
  324. Arthritis
    inflammation of a joint
  325. Arthrochondritis
    inflammation of an articular cartilage
  326. Atrophy
    a wasting of tissue or an organ
  327. Bradykinesia
    condition of decreased movement
  328. Bunion
    swelling at metatarsophalaneal joint caused by inflammatory bursa
  329. Bursitis
    inflammation of a bursa
  330. Bursolith
    a calculus (stone) formed in a bursa
  331. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
    nerve entrapment syndrome in the wrist, causing pain
  332. Carpoptosis, wrist-drop
    paralysis of wrist and finger muscles
  333. Chondromalacia
    softening of a cartliage
  334. Cranioschisis
    congenital incomplete closure of the skull
  335. Curvature of the spine
    abnormal curving of the spine in one or more directions
  336. Kyphosis
    abnormal forward curvature; humpback
  337. Lordosis
    abnormal backward curvature
  338. Scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature
  339. Dyskinesia
    difficulty performing voluntary movements
  340. Dystrophy
    abnormal development or growth of a tissue or organ often resulting from nutritional deficiency
  341. Exostosis
    bony projection that develops from cartilage
  342. Fibromyalgia
    condition of chronic aching and stiffness of muscles and soft tissues of unknown causes
  343. Fracture (fx)
    a break in a bone or cartilage
  344. Gout
    metabolic disorder involving painful deposits of crystals in connective tissue and articular cartilage
  345. Herniated disk (or disc)
    protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk
  346. Hyperkinesia
    condition of excessive muscular movements
  347. Hypertrophy
    increased development of a part or organ not caused by a tumor
  348. Maxillitis
    inflammation of the maxilla
  349. Meniscitis
    inflammation of a meniscus
  350. Muscular dystrophy (MD)
    hereditary condition causing progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles
  351. Myalagia
    condition of muscular pain
  352. Myasthenia gravis (MG)
    condition of neuromusclular disorder causing weakness and fatigue of voluntary muscles
  353. Myositis
    inflammation of a muscle
  354. Osteitis
    inflammation of a bone
  355. Osteoarthritis (OA)
    arthritis involving erosion and inflammation of articular cartilage
  356. Osteochondritis
    inflammation of a bone and its articular cartilage
  357. Osteomalacia
    condition of softening of bones
  358. Osteomyelitis
    inflammation of bone marrow
  359. Osteonecrosis
    condition or process of bone tissue death
  360. Osteoporosis
    age-related disorder of decreased bone mass and weakening
  361. Polymyositis
    inflammation of multiple voluntary muscles
  362. Rachischisis
    embryologic failure of vertebral arches to fuse
  363. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    disease causing progressive destructive changes and inflammation in multiple joints, especially in the hands and feet
  364. Rickets
    disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, involving skeletal deformities and muscular weakness
  365. Spondylarthritis
    inflammation of intervertebral articulations
  366. Sprain
    injury of a ligament caused by abnormal or excessive forces on a joint
  367. Strain
    injury of a muscle caused by overuse or improper use
  368. Tendonitis, tendinitis
    inflammation of a tendon
  369. Tenodynia
    condition of pain in a tendon
  370. Tenosynovitis
    inflammation of a tendon and its sheath
  371. Creatine kinase (CK)
    test for the presence of the enzyme creatine kinase in the blood that may indicate conditions that can cause muscle weakness or pain
  372. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
    time measurement of red blood cells settling in a test tube over 1 hour; used to assess for inflammatory or necrotic conditions
  373. Rheumatoid factor (RF)
    blood test used to help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis
  374. Synovial fluid analysis
    test for the presence of crystals caused by some conditions, such as arthritis, and also signs of joint infection
  375. Uric acid
    test for elevated presence of uric acid in the blood, indicating gout
  376. Arthrography
    x-ray imaging of a joint using a contrast agent
  377. Arthroscopy
    endoscopic examination of the interior of a joint
  378. Bone densitiometry
    x-ray technique for determining density of bone
  379. Bone scan
    nuclear medicine imagining of bone to diagnose bone disorders
  380. Computed tomography (CT)
    x-ray technique producing computer-generated cross-sectional images; used to evaluate disorders of and injuries to the musculoskeletal system
  381. Electromyogram (EMG)
    diagnostic test producing graphic record of electric currents associated with muscular action
  382. Magnetic resonance imagining (MRI)
    imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures; often used for diagnosing joint disorders
  383. Radiography
    examination of any part of the body by x-ray
  384. Range of motion (ROM) testing
    measurement of the amount of movement allowed in a joint
  385. Arthrocentesis
    needle puncture to remove fluid from a joint
  386. Arhtroclasia
    surgical breaking of adhesions in ankylosis
  387. Arthrodesis
    surgical artificial stiffening of a joint
  388. Arhtroplasty
    surgical restoration of a joint function or creation of an artificial joint (such as a total hip or knee replacement)
  389. Bursectomy
    excision of a bursa
  390. Carpectomy
    excision of part or all of the carpal bones
  391. Chondrectomy
    excision of cartilage
  392. Chondroplasty
    surgical repair of cartilage
  393. Costectomy
    excision of a rib
  394. Cranioplasty
    surgical repair of the skull
  395. Craniotomy
    surgical repair of the skull
  396. Diskectomy
    excision of part or all of an intervertebral disk
  397. Laminectomy
    excision of a vertebral lamina
  398. Laminotomy, rachiotomy
    enlargement of the interverteral foramen by excision of a portion of the lamina
  399. Maillotomy
    surgical resection of the maxilla
  400. Meniscetomy
    excision of a meniscus, usually from the knee joint
  401. Myoplasty
    surgical repair of muscular tissue
  402. Myorrhaphy
    suture of a muscle
  403. Open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF)
    surgical repair of a fracture by making an incision into the skin and muscle at the site of the fracture, manually moving the bones into alignment, and fixing the bones in place with surgical wires, screws, pins, rods, or plates
  404. Ostectomy
    excision of bone tissue
  405. Osteoclasis
    intentional fracture of a bone to correct deformity
  406. Osteoclast
    surgical instrument used to fracture a bone to correct a deformity
  407. Patellectomy
    excision of the patella
  408. Phalangectomy
    excision of one or more phalanges of the hand or foot
  409. Reduction
    manipulative or surgical procedure to restore a part to its normal position, such as by reducing a fracture (putting bone ends back in place)
  410. Spondylosyndesis
    surgical procedure to create ankylosis between two or more vertebrae; also called spinal fusion
  411. Synovectomy
    excision of part or all of a joint's synovial membrane
  412. Tarsectomy
    excision of part or all of the tarsal bones
  413. Tenorrhaphy
    suture of the divided ends of a tendon
  414. Traction
    a pulling force exerted on a limb or other part of the body to maintain a desired position for healing
  415. Orthosis
    external orthopedic device, such as a brace or splint
  416. Prosthesis
    fabricated substitute for a damaged or missing part of the body
  417. Analgesic
    a drug that relieves pain without producing anesthesia
  418. Corticosteroid
    a drug that reduces inflammation around joints
  419. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
    drug with anti-inflammatory action (and usually analgesic and antipyretic effects as well); used to treat joint and muscle conditions
  420. Skeletal muscle relaxant
    a drug that relaxes skeletal muscle spasms and spasticity
  421. Chiropractic
    health care discipline involving physical manipulation of musculoskeletal structures
  422. Chiropractor
    one who specializes in chiropractic
  423. Orthopedics, orthopaedics
    medical specialty focusing on diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system
  424. Orthotics
    the science of making and fitting orthopedic devices
  425. Orthopedist, orthopaedist
    physician who specializes in orthopedics
  426. Orthotist
    one who makes and fits orthopedic appliances
  427. Osteopathy
    school of medicine emphasizing manipulative measures in addition to techniques of conventional medicine
  428. Podiatry
    medical specialty focusing on diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the foot
  429. Podiatrist
    physician who specializes in podiatry
  430. Rheumatology
    medical specialty focusing on the study, diagnosis, and treatment of joint conditions
  431. Rheumatologist
    physician who specializes in rheumatology
  432. C1 to C7
    cervical vertebrae 1 to 7
  433. CK
    creatine kinase
  434. CT
    computed tomography
  435. CTS
    carpal tunnel syndrome
  436. EMG
    electromyogram
  437. ESR
    erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  438. fx
    fracture
  439. L1 to L5
    lumbar vertebrae 1 to 5
  440. MD
    muscular dystrophy
  441. MG
    myasthenia gravis
  442. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  443. NSAID
    nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  444. OA
    osteoarthritis
  445. ORIF
    open reduction, internal fixation
  446. RA
    rheumatoid arthritis
  447. RF
    rheumatoid factor
  448. ROM
    range of motion
  449. T1 to T12
    thoracic vertebrae 1 to 12

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