1. What can glutamate turn into? (6)
2. What is central role of glutamate in AA metabolism?
3. When does kidney extract significant glutamine?
4. What does muscle release most of its AAs as? % (2)
5. What is generally major organ extracting glutamine? What else can it do?
6. What is the glucose-alanine shuttle?
7. What do all of these processes cost?
1. Leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, arginine (and a-ketoglutarate), glutamine
2. Ammonia regulation, transamination, glutamine syn/degradation.
3. When its dumping acid
4. ~50% alanine and glutamine
5. Gut. Oxidize glutamine --> NH3
6. Way to shuttle N generated from AA oxidation out of muscle and to liver for urea synthesis.