A&P Bone vocabulary

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A&P Bone vocabulary
2013-11-11 16:51:42
Human anatomy bones skeletal tissues

A&P Chapter 6 vocabulary
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  1. A variety of cartilage tissue which consists primarily of water.
    Skeletal cartilage
  2. Cartilage that provides support with flexibility & resilience.  Looks like frosted glass when freshly exposed.
    Hyaline cartilage
  3. Type of hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of most bones at movable joints.
    Articular cartilages
  4. Type of hyaline cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum.
    Costal cartilage
  5. Type of hyaline cartilage that forms the skeleton of the larynx and reinforces other respiratory passageways.
    Respiratory cartilage
  6. Type of hyaline cartilage that supports the external nose.
    Nasal cartilage
  7. Cartilage that looks very much like hyaline cartilage but contains more stretchy fibers and is better able to stand up to repeated bending.  Only found in external ear and epiglottis.
    Elastic cartilage
  8. Cartilage that is highly compressible and has great tensile strength.  Composed of roughly parallel rows of chondrocytes alternating with thick collagen fibers.  Found in places such as menisci of the knee and vertebral discs.
  9. Growth pattern of cartilage in which cells in perichondrium secrete new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage tissue.
    Appositional growth
  10. Growth pattern of cartilage in which lacunae-bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within.
    Interstitial growth
  11. Portion of the skeleton formed by the long axis of the body, including the bones of the skull, vertebral column & rib cage.  Responsible for protecting, supporting or carrying other body parts.
    Axial skeleton
  12. Portion of the skeleton formed by the bones of the upper and lower limbs and girdles that attach limbs to the axial skeleton.
    Appendicular skeleton
  13. Classification of bones that are considerably longer than they are wide.  All limb bones except patella, wrist and ankle bones fall into this category.
    Long bones
  14. Classification of bones that are roughly cube shaped, such as wrist and ankle bones.
    Short bones
  15. Special classification of short bones that form in a tendon, such as the patella.
    Sesamoid bones
  16. Classification of bones that are thin, flattened and usually a bit curved, such as the sternum, ribs and most skull bones.
    Flat bones
  17. Classification of bones that have complicated shapes that don't fit into any of the other categories, such as vertebrae & hip bones.
    Irregular bones
  18. The dense outer layer of a bone that looks smooth and solid to the naked eye.
    Compact bone
  19. The internal part of bones that looks like a honeycomb.
    Spongy bone or cancellous bone
  20. The small needle-like or flat pieces that make up spongy bone.
  21. The tubular shaft of long bones.
  22. The central cavity inside long bones.
    Medullary cavity or marrow cavity
  23. The ends of long bones, covered with articular cartilage.
  24. The area between the diaphysis and the epiphysis in an adult.
    Epiphyseal line
  25. The area between the diaphysis and the epiphysis in a child or teenager.  A disc of hyaline cartilage.
    Epiphyseal plate
  26. The white, double-layered membrane that covers the exterior surface of a bone.
  27. Bone-forming cells that secrete bone matrix elements and osteoclasts.
  28. The outer layer of the periosteum, made up of dense irregular connective tissue.
    Fibrous layer
  29. The inner layer of the periosteum that is made up primarily of osteoblasts.
    Osteogenic layer
  30. Bone-destroying cells.
  31. Primitive stem cells that give rise to osteoblasts.
    Osteogenic cells
  32. The external opening in a bone for the entrance of blood vessels, nerve fibers and lymphatic vessels.
    Nutrient foramina
  33. The covering of internal bone surfaces, made up of a delicate connective tissue.
  34. The spongy bone inside of flat bones.
  35. Hematopoietic tissue typically found within the trabecular cavities of spongy bone of long bones and the diploë of flat bones.
    Red marrow
  36. The cavity that holds hematopoietic tissue within the spongy bone of long bones and the diploë of flat bones.
    Red marrow cavity
  37. The structural unit of compact bone that is an elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone.  Essentially a group of hollow tubes of bone matrix, arranged like the rings of a tree trunk.
    Osteon or Haversian system
  38. The name of the individual matrix tubes or "rings"  of the osteons.
  39. The core of the osteon that contains small blood vessels and nerve fibers.
    Central canal or Haversian canal
  40. Openings that lie at right angles to the long axis of the bones and connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the central canas and the medulalary cavity.
    Perforating canals or Volkmann's canals
  41. Spider-shaped cells that occupy lacunae at the junctions of the lamellae.
  42. Hair-like canals that connect the lacunae (at the junctions of the lamellae) to each other and to the central canal.
  43. incomplete lamellae that lie between intact osteons.
    Interstitial lamellae
  44. Lamellae located just deep to the periosteum and just superficial to the endosteum and extend around the entire circumference of the diaphysis, surrounding all of the interior osteons.
    Circumferential lamellae
  45. The organic part of bone matrix that makes up approximately 1/3 of the matrix, includes ground substance and collagen fibers.
  46. The inorganic part of bone matrix, accounts for approximately 65% of bone tissue.
    Mineral salts
  47. The process of bone formation.
    Ossification or osteogenesis
  48. The process by which fibrous membrane develops into bone (called membrane bone).
    Intramembranous ossification
  49. The process by which hyaline cartilage develops into bone (called cartilage, or endochondral, bone).
    Endochondral ossification
  50. The center of the hyaline cartilage shaft where the formation of a long bone typically begins.
    Primary ossification center
  51. The freshly formed layer of bone that is laid down around the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage model of a long bone in the first step of endochondral ossification.
    Periosteal bone collar
  52. A collection of elements (nutrient artery & vein, lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers, red marrow elements, osteoblasts, osteoclasts) that invades the cavities forming in a long bone during the third step of endochondral ossification.
    Periosteal bud
  53. The cavities that form right around birth in long bones in one or both epiphses in order for the epiphyses to gain bony tissue during endochondral ossification.
    Secondary ossification centers
  54. The region of a growing long bone where the epiphyseal plate faces the epiphysis.
    Resting or quiescent zone
  55. The region of a growing long bone where the epiphyseal plate abuts the diaphysis and the cartilage cells are undergoing mitosis.
    The proliferation or growth zone.
  56. The region of a growing long bone, deep to the epiphyseal plate, where older chondrocytes hypertrophy, their lacunae erode and enlarge, leaving large interconnecting spaces.
    Hypertrophic zone
  57. The region of a growing long bone, deep to the epiphyseal plate, where the cartilage matrix calcifies and the chondrocytes die and deteriorate.
    Calcification zone
  58. The region of a growing long bone, deep to the epiphyseal plate, that is invaded by marrow elements and new bone is formed.
    Ossification zone
  59. The process that happens to long bones when longitudinal bone growth ends and the bone of the epihysis and diaphysis fuse.  Around age 18 in females and 21 in males.
    Epiphyseal plate closure
  60. The single most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity.  A hormone.
    Growth hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland
  61. Together, the processes of bone deposit and bone resorption constitute...
    Bone remodeling
  62. This occurs wherever bone is injured or added bone strength is required.
    Bone deposit
  63. An unmineralized band of gauzy-looking bone matrix.
    Osteoid seam
  64. The abrupt transition between the osteoid seam and the older mineralized bone.
    Calcification front
  65. The process by which osteoclasts remove bone.
    Bone resporption
  66. A condition caused by the sustained high blood levels of Ca2 which can lead to undesirable deposits of calcium salts in the blood vessels, kidneys and other soft organs, which can hamper the functioning of these organs.
  67. The theory that a bone grows or remodels in response to the demands placed on it.
    Wolff's Law
  68. A bone fracture in which the bone ends retain their normal position.
    Nondisplaced fracture
  69. A bone fracture in which the bone ends are out of normal alignment.
    Displaced fracture
  70. A bone fracture in which the bone is broken all the way through.
    Complete fracture
  71. A bone fracture in which the bone is broken only part-way through.
    Incomplete fracture
  72. A bone fracture in which the break parallels the long axis of the bone.
    Linear fracture
  73. A bone fracture in which the break is perpendicular to the bone's long axis.
    Transverse fracture
  74. A bone fracture in which the bone ends penetrate the skin.
    Compound or open fracture
  75. A bone fracture in which the skin remains intact.
    Closed or simple fracture
  76. Realignment of the broken bone ends.
  77. Realignment of the broken bone ends in which the physician coaxes the bones into position with his hands.
    Closed or external reduction
  78. Realignment of the broken bone ends in which the bone ends are secured together surgically with pins or wires.
    Open or internal reduction
  79. A mass of clotted blood.
  80. The mass of repair tissue that your body produces to splint a broken bone.  Includes fibrous tissue, cartilage, new blood vessels, fibroblasts, osteoblasts.....
    Fibrocartilaginous callus
  81. The new bone (spongy bone) formed in a healing break.
    Bony or hard callus
  82. A bone disorder in adults in which the bones are inadequately mineralized.  Osteoid is produced, but calcium salts are not deposited.
  83. A bone disorder in children in which the bones are inadequately mineralized.  Osteoid is produced, but calcium salts are not deposited.
  84. A bone disorder that plagues the elderly, particularly women, in which the bone resorption rate outpaced bone deposit.
  85. A bone disorder characterized by excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption.  Rarely occurs before the age of 40 and is often found by accident when X-rays are taken to look for something else.
    Paget's disease
  86. A congenital condition involving defective cartilage and endochondral bone growth so that the limbs are too short but the membrane bones are of normal size; a type of dwarfism.
  87. Abnormal projection from a bone due to bony overgrowth; common in aging bones.
    Bony spur
  88. Pain in a bone.
  89. A disorder in which the bone matrix contains inadequate amounts of collagen, putting it at risk for shattering.  AKA brittle bone disease.
    Osteogenesis imperfgecta
  90. Inflammation of bone and bone marrow caused by pus-forming bacteria that enters the body via a wound or spreads from an infection near the bone.  Commonly affects the long bones.  May results in joint stiffness, bone destruction & shortening of a limb.
    Treatment:  antibiotics, drain any abscesses, removal of dead bone fragments.
  91. A form of bone cancer typically arising in long bones of limbs, most often in those aged 10-25.  Aggressive, painfully erodes the bone and tends to metastasize to the lungs, causing secondary lung tumors.  If found early, survival rate is about 50%.
    Treatment:  amputation of limb, chemotherapy, surgical removal of metastases
  92. Fracture in a diseased bone involving slight or no physical trauma, such as a cough or quick turn.  For example, a hip bone weakened by osteoporosis may break and cause the person to fall, rather than breaking because of the fall.
    Pathologic fracture
  93. Placing sustained tension on a body region to keep the parts of a fractured bone in proper alignment; also prevents spasms of skeletal muscles, which would separate the fractured bone ends or crush the spinal cord in the case of vertebral column fractures.