Chemistry Chapter 4
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- Anything that has mass and occupies space.
- Matter exists in three main phases; solid, liquid, gas. These phases can be changed depending on how much energy the given matter has (solid being the least and gas being the most amount of energy).
- Matter is a very broad category and matter can be very different from other matter depending on how it is arranged chemically.
- Matter that contains only one kind of particle.
- Some examples would be: oxygen, water, gold, carbon dioxide, etc.
- Matter that contains more than one kind of particle.
- Some examples would be: steel (an alloy of iron and carbon), air (contains nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, and more), salt water, etc.
- A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler parts by chemical methods.
- Some examples would be: helium, iron, argon, neon, lithium, etc.
- A pure substance made of two or more different elements that are chemically combined.
- Some examples would be: carbon dioxide, glucose, water, sodium chloride (table salt), etc.
- A characteristic of a substance that can be observed and measured without changing the identity of the substance.
- Some qualitative properties include: colour, odour, texture, lustre, etc.
- Some quantitative properties include: viscosity, melting point, boiling point, density, etc.
- The measure of a substances resistance to flow.
- Liquids with a high viscosity flow slowly and vice-versa.
- Water would be an example of a liquid with a low viscosity, while molasses would be an example of a liquid with a high viscosity.
- The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid (and a liquid can turn back into a solid).
- Melting is when a solid turns into a liquid, and solidification is when a liquid turns into a solid.
- Different substances can have radically different melting points such as helium with a melting point of -272.2 degrees Celsius and water at 0 degrees Celsius.
- The temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas (and a gas can turn back into a liquid).
- Evaporation is when a liquid turns into a gas, and condensation is when a gas turns into a liquid.
- Boiling points can be radically different as well, as shown be helium at -269 degrees Celsius and water at 100 degrees Celsius.
- A measure of the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance.
- Solubility is recorded as the maximum amount of a substance/solute that can dissolve into another substance/solvent; the units are expressed as a concentration, usually units are: mass of solute per mass of solvent, or mass of solute per volume of solvent.
- An example would be sodium chloride which has a solubility of 39.5g/100mL in water at 25 degrees Celsius and atmospheric pressure.
- The ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume it occupies.
- Solids generally are the densest, followed by liquids, and finally gases. However, different elements and compounds can have very different densities even in the same phase of matter.
- The ability of a substance to change (react) and form new substances.
- Different elements and compounds have different reactivity with other different substances.
- Some important kinds of chemical reactivity on earth include: reactivity with water, oxygen, acids, and another pure substance.
- The ability of a substance to burn in air.
- Propane is a compound that has a high combustibility and releases a large amount of heat when burned.
- The ability of a substance to remain unchanged.
- When scientists are trying to synthesize new elements they can have issues stabilizing them so that they do not radioactively decay into another element.
- The ability of a substance to cause harmful effects in plants and animals.
- Almost all chemicals are poisonous at high enough concentrations; even oxygen can kill you if you are exposed to too much.
- Toxicity is usually expressed as a LD50 value. This unit of measure refers to the dose required to kill 50% of the exposed population.
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