What does the following statement describes? Keep customers happy by conformance to requirements (ensure the project produces what it's supposed to) and fitness for use (the product must satisfy real needs)
What does the following statement describes? It's usually less expensive to prevent mistakes than it is to fix them
PREVENTION OVER INSPECTION
What does the following statement describes? The values of repeated measurements are clustered and have little scatter
What does the following statement describes? The measured value is very close to the true value.
What does the following statement describes? Looking to see if we are using the quality procedures as planned; auditing the process
What does the following statement describes? Testing the quality of the product or deliverable
What does the following statement describes? High quality results in less rework, higher productivity, lower costs, and increased stakeholder satisfaction
What does the following statement describes? Includes all costs over the life of the project; (two categories: Conformance and Nonconformance)
COST OF QUALITY
What does the following statement describes? Money spent during the project to avoid failures; (two categories: Prevention and Appraisal)
COST OF CONFORMANCE
What does the following statement describes? Build a quality product; includes training, document processes, maintaining equipment, and allowing enough time to do it right
PREVENTION COSTS (cost of conformance)
What does the following statement describes? Assess the quality; includes testing, destructive testing loss, and inspection
APPRAISAL COST (cost of performance)
What does the following statement describes? Money spent during and after the project because of failures
COST OF NON-CONFORMANCE
What does the following statement describes? Failures found by the project; includes scrap and rework
INTERNAL FAILURE COSTS (cost of non-conformance)
What does the following statement describes? Failures found by the customer; includes liabilities, warranty work, and lost business
EXTERNAL FAILURE COSTS (cost of non-conformance)
What does the following statement describes? A statistical technique that analyzes several variations (product bundles or feature combinations) at once.
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS (DOE)
Japanese word for "continuous improvement"; a type of Plan Do Check Act (PDCA) cycle.
Developed the 14 point of Total Quality Management (TQM); said quality is a management problem 85% of the time
W. Edwards Deming (14 letters in his name)
Defined quality as "fitness for use"; promoted conformance and quality by design
Believed in conformance to requirements and zero defects.
Phillip Crosby (zero or o in his last name)
A quality management certification that requires documenting and following processes
Low Grade is OK; Low Quality is always bad.
Quality vs Grade
What is also known as Sigma; represents variation (dispersion) from the average (mean)
Standard Deviation Formula
Standard Deviation = (Pessimistic-Optimistic)/6
68.26% (317,500 defects per million)
95.46% (45,000 defects per million)
99.73% (2,700 defects per million)
99.999% (3.4 defects per million)
What is this?
Normal Probability Duration (Bell Curve)
Two events can't occur at the same time (if one event occurs, then the other event cannot)
The occurrence of one event makes it neither more nor less probable that the other occurs; (ie. past coin flip of heads does not change the probability of the next coin flip being heads)
Choosing a small random sample, and the samples properties should represent the entire group.
Displays process stability and performance
Seven consecutive data points on the control chart on one side of the mean; signifies that the process is headed out of control
Rule of 7
Comparing your project or process to a known standard
What is a visual depiction of a process?
Special Cause (also known as assignable cause; not inherent in the system, not predictable, and is intermittent; includes non-random data points or points outside the control limits) and Common Causes (also known as random cause; inherent to the system and predictable; normal or not unusual; includes random patterns within the control limits)
Types of Variances
A type of chart contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line; 80/20 rule says 80% of the problems are from 20% of the causes, and dictates you should focus most of your attention on those top few causes
Plots data points to show the relationship between two variables (X,Y)
Shows how various factors might be linked to potential problems or effects.