music history 151 test #3

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  1. talk about Beethoven's life
    1. Probably the first musician to make a career only in composition

    • Regarded a genius even in his life
    • First non operatic free agent composer to make it
    • The new rich non noble upper class really liked him
    • He played in public, composed on commission, published, and taught
    • He saw his music as his legacy (not just a thing to be traded)
    • He has 3 composition periods

    • Early: start to 1802
    • Middle 1802-1812

    Symphonies 3-7 

    All about the word Expantion 


    Late 1818-1827


    He followed his father as a court musician in Bonn (western Germany) 

    He mixed with aristocrats and took classes at the university 

    At age 22 he Received a fellowship to go to Vienna to study with Haydn 

    Remained in Vienna until his death

    After age 30 he went progressively deaf

    • This crisis made him depressed 
    • He overcome his depression and wrote his 3 rd symphony (Eroica)

    He was an interesting character

    • He was strong willed And seemed to live for his art alone
    • He moved about once a year

    Lived in someone's house

    He was well known in Vienna as an eccentric

    Grew conservative in his later years

    • Would write music for counterrevolutionary celebrations
    • Got in a slump but came out of it to write some of his best music

    He had a huge need to give and receive affection

    Never married despite many love affairs 

    Always fell in love with the wrong person

    The virgin or the whore


    He adopted his orphan nephew

    Didn't go well as Beethoven smothered the boy and the boy attempted suicide


    He had always lived with ill health

    Both mental and physical

    Family issues and illness

    • Died and 20,000 attended his funeral
    • His eulogy was written by Vienna's best poet
  2. What two movements does Beethoven sit between?
        how is he in-between these two movements?
    Classism and Romanticism

    he takes mature classical forms and puts his personal stamp on them

    • since he is a student of Haydn his roots are is classicism
    • however he is committed to the principals but not necessarily the mood behind it (many of his pieces are extremely emotional)
  3. What about Beethoven made his Symphony's unique?
    Maximized musical elements 

    • Higher and lower ranges
    • Sharper syncopations
    • Harder accents
    • Harsher dissonance
    • Changed and expanded the orchestra





    The scherzo

    Replaced the minuet with the scherzo

    • Fast rushing movement in triple meter
    • Also in minuet trio form

    • ABA or extended to ABABA
    • B is still a trio


    This became an ideal vehicle for his rhythmic drive
  4. What was Beethoven's "symphonic ideal"?
    Perfect example is symphony number 5

    Rhythmic drive

    • Hammers the meter
    • Lots of accents
    • Not elegant like the classical style

    Motivic consistency (or unity)

    One motive that is developed

    Sense of psychological progression

    Traces an apparent and dramatic psychological progression
  5. Beethoven was fond of using a technique called expansion. What is it?
    Would expand on what he would be given

    Extremely Large transitional and development periods
  6. Beethoven altered the symphony by using the scherzo. What is is and how did Beethoven incorporate it into the symphony
    Replaced the minuet with the scherzo

    • Fast rushing movement in triple meter
    • Also in minuet trio form

    • ABA or extended to ABABA
    • B is still a trio


    This became an ideal vehicle for his rhythmic drive
  7. Talk about the Symphony No. 5 in C minor
    Written by Beethoven



    Composed with his sixth symphony

    Concert/premiere was a huge success despite the heating going out in December

    It's a romantic sound in a classical framework

    Larger palette of tone colors, more chromaticism, 

    Start to see more emphasis on themes

    First movement-allegro con brio

    Form: AB (exposition) :|| ? (development) AB (recap) Coda (huge and mostly in i)

    Exposition

    • First theme is shown (called the fate theme) 
    • Meter is interrupted 3 times by fermatas

    Gives the music a shout like quality

    Horn bridges us into the second (major) theme

    • Beethoven brushes this theme away and returns to the exposition and repeats it
    • Unusual because of the very short transition (horn is the transition) 


    Development

    • First theme is developed
    • Uses fragmentation in lower strings and winds

    Two pitches of the bridge theme are isolated and echoed between two or more parts


    Recapitulation

    Exposition theme is renounced with an oboe solo interrupting one of the fermatas

    Provides a brief rest from the rhythmic drive


    Coda

    • Contrapuntual idea appears 
    • Huge coda 


    Second movement- andante com moto


    Double theme and variations

    Cellos begin with a graceful theme

    Ended with repeated cadences

    Modulates and trumpets come in with the exposition theme

    Two more brass fanfares by the end of the piece


    Third movement-allegro (ABA scherzo from)

    • Is a scherzo although Beethoven did not label it as such
    • Forceful theme in the horn
    • Then a fugal section
    • Ends with a new texture built from pizzicato strings and oboe

    • At the very end he creates a period of stasis where the music doesn't move
    • Bridges movements 3>4


    Fourth movement- allegro


    • Major 
    • Progressive  tonality

    • When the key changes 
    • When it ends in a different key than it starts


    Military march happens

    Sonata form

    • The second theme in the scherzo returns 
    • A jubilee in the recapitulation and the coda and the movement is done
  8. what is progressive tonality
    When you end a piece in a different key that you start in
  9. How does Beethoven's music change during his third period
    His music becomes introspective and he writes many more intimate ensembles (piano concerto, string quartet etc)

    Very personal

    Also becomes bombastic 

    • In his largest ensembles
    • Like symphony no 9

    Messes with form to create a range of expression
  10. Who was the "father of the string quartet"
    haydn
  11. the string quartet was originally written for what quality of musician
    • Originally written for amateurs (sometimes with one hired professional playing violin 1)
    • They became virtuosic and only for professionals by 1790's
  12. String Quartet in F op 135 Second Movement
    Written by Beethoven during his 3rd period





    Piece as a whole

    • All instruments are equal and is extremely virtuosic
    • There are some odd harmonic shifts which are characteristic of this period of his life
    • Movement between the scherzo and trio is very connected
    • He messes with the form

    • Three blind mice opens the song and is tiny and skittering (A theme)
    • B theme is even simpler 

    Constant use of syncopation

    This movement is like a scherzo although Beethoven did not label it as one

    • The trio section takes off like a rocket and scales shoot through the octaves
    • The form we expect is thrown out
  13. which composers legacy hangs over the romantic era
    Beethoven's legacy towers over everyone
  14. during the romantic era who supports music?
    Industrial revolution has begun

    • Old society (courts) is slowly replaced by urban capitalism 
    • Primary sponsors of music are the public

    Urban upper class 

    Supported as concert goers, students, amateur players and singers
  15. what is nationalism in a musical sense
    Re embrace language and history (we got a lot of folk songs)
  16. what happened to the size of concert halls and opera houses
    Larger and larger concert halls and opera houses are built 

    Private salon, solo recital, and huge concerts are common
  17. what is the cult of individual feeling
    Strived for a better, higher, ideal state of being

    • It's very personal all about self expression
    • Pre-occupation with nature in its wild state

    Everyday life could only be transcended by using free will and passion

    • Be unconstrained by social norms or religion
    • Rousseau gave us the ideal individual
  18. during the romantic era why was music considered more expressive than other arts
    music was not tied down by words or shapes
  19. how did concert life change during the early 19th century
    • A city of any size had a symphony
    • Even small ensembles meant for the home began to appear on stage
    • Improved transportation made tours possible for musicians
  20. during the early 19th century what was the public opinion of music
    eople wanted to hear something already established a a masterpiece and not necessarily the new music of the time

    • Composers who were innovators felt neglected
    • Public distrusted innovators

    • Schumann campaigned for romantic music to be played
    • Liszt and Wagner were attacked for being formless and dissonant
    • Mahler symphonies was rejected in Vienna despite him being the head of opera in Vienna
  21. why is romantic style hard to define?
    Hard to define the romantic style in general because it was made of very personal and eccentric composers
  22. talk about some of the style features of romantic music that were more or less universal between the many composers
    Rubato

    • They tended to blur sharp rhythmic edges using rubato
    • Improvisation and ornamentation vanished

    melody

    • Emotional, effusive, and demonstrative
    • Range quite widely

    Irregular in rhythem and phrase structure

    Grand exaggerated emotionality

    Harmony

    • Used chromaticism extensively
    • Becomes more and more dissonant and chromatic over time

    Expansion of tone color

    • Quality of sound became a major part of artistic importance
    • Orchestral instruments developed into their modern day forms
    • Orchestra is filled out with more winds and percussion
    • Mixed new colors of sound and expanded their palette
  23. define program music
    Music written in association with a literary source

    • Not new but assumed importance in this era
    • Tell a story (fantastic symphony berloiz) or capture a general mood (nocturne)
  24. what was a miniature composition and what was the popular german form of this
    • pieces listing only a few minutes or even less
    • Designed to portray a particularly poignant emotion
    • Art song = lieder or lied

    • Grew because Germans were sick of Italian music
    • Used a lot of poems from Goethe (#1poet)
  25. define thematic unity and thematic transformation
    Increasing tendency to keep some of the same thematic material thought whole works 

    • Either the same theme unaltered or slightly altered
    • Thematic transformation

    A variation of a theme found in an earlier movement appears in a later one

    They could have themes that only vaguely resembled each other 

    Wagner loved doing this
  26. define lied
    The lied

    • A particular type of German song
    • Accompaniment 

    Usually only a piano accompaniment

    Poetry

    Usually is a poem set to music

    Mood

    Pieces are designed to feel like they are sharing a particular emotion with just you

    They were designed to be played in a home and not on the concert hall stage
  27. listening Erkonig
    Written by Franz Schubert






    Lied is generally strophic or strophic with refrain

    This piece is almost through- composed

    • Has different music for each stanza of text 
    • Opposite of strophic where everything has the same tune

    About a father riding (horse) as fast as he can with a boy who is sick and dying to get him home

    • He dies on the way
    • 4 characters: narrator, father, son, Erkönig 

    • Piano intro is very dark
    • Each "voice" has a distinct sound

    Father is low and gruff, boy is high and frantic, Erlking is soft and crooning

    • Diminished harmonies when the boy sings
    • Major when the Erlking sings


    Piece is held together by repeating motives like the piano triplet rhythem and the riding theme in the first stanza
  28. Written by Franz Schubert
    on of a middle lower class Viennese schoolmaster

    • Had musical training early and his talent amazed his teachers
    • Became a schoolteacher but quit to peruse music

    • He was shy and never married (he may have been gay) 
    • He never really had a regular job and he was sustained by the odd fees for teaching and publishing

    • He wrote several hundred lied in addition to his symphonies and other works
    • The majority of his work is for private salons (lots for voice and piano)

    He died of typhoid fever

    Greatest and earliest master of the lied
  29. The song cycle
    Group of songs associated by a common theme or an actual story

    Generally a vague plot 

    Schubert wrote two of these that were based off ready made groups of poems by Wilhelm MÜller

    "The fair maid of the mill" and " winter journey"

    This genre extended the small lied into a larger composition
  30. "dichterliebe" (a poet's love)
    • 16 songs in this song cycle
    • Poet is Heinrich Heine
    • Written by Robert Schumann






    Work has a whole has no story but is a series of love poems that go from optimism to  disillusionment to despair 

    "Im wunderschönen Monat Mai" (  The wonderfully lovely month of May ) first part of lieder in song cycle

    Song begins with a piano intro and the piano part winds in and out of the vocal line as it enters

    • Vocal line is high for the voice to create nervousness as part of the piece
    • song ends without a real cadence to create the impression of yearning for something 

    Also ambiguous in the key


    Strophic form

    "Die algen bösen lieder" (hateful songs of times past) final part of the lieder

      Incessant Piano part continues thought the piece 

    Angry sounding part

    • Through- composed but with some musical parallels
    • Stanza six we learn what these funeral arrangements are about

    • We loose accompaniment then rhythm
    • Piano closes with a solo


    Work is a great example of the endless pleasures and pains of love celebrated by the romantics
  31. Robert Schumann
    First fully romantic composer

    His father was a bookseller and writer who encouraged his musical talent

    He studied piano

    • When his father died his mother wanted him to go into law and he started but convinced her to let him do music instead
    • Was a virtuosic piano player but injured himself so he began composing
    • He loved schuberts piano music and was heavily influenced by it

    For the first ten years of his career Schumann only wrote piano music

    Founded a magazine to campaign for a higher level of music

    It is still in print and it encouraged Chopin and Brahms

    Began making lieder in 1840 (the year of his wedding to his piano teachers daughter)

    Piano holds a very complex role

    • It's prominent and it plays a role in the melody and mixes with the soloist
    • More pianistic style in the accompaniment

    • Lots of prelude, interlude, postludes, and exit music
    • Because of the wedding he began to write love songs for Clara (his wife)

    He wrote tons of music in this year


    Then he started to work as a teacher and composed larger works

    • This didn't go well because of his withdrawn personality
    • Began to go insane and was put in an asylum where he died two years after
  32. Clara Schumann
    Eldest child of a very ambitious music teacher named fried rich wieck

    • He had his own piano method and wanted to make Clara a leading pianist
    • She became a prodigy and a virtuoso

    • She composed music to play at her own concerts
    • Married Robert Schumann 

    • She didn't like composing because he was such a great composer and he didn't like playing piano because she was so much better than him
    • Roberts instability made life difficult for her

    She continued her career the best she could but  she often had to take care of her family














    When Robert died she found herself in love with Johannes Brahms 

    It never happened he never married and she never remarried

    With children to support she focused on things she knew she could make money with (concerts and teaching)

    She toured widely

    She became a major force in Late 19th century music
  33. Character piece for piano
    Another chief type of romantic miniature was a character piece (piano miniature) 

    • Appeared under many names like nocturne, waltz, scherzo, or étude
    • Could be very easy or very very difficult
    • They portray some defined character or mood

    An intense distinct emotion
  34. Listening: carnaval
    • By Robert Schumann
    • His piano pieces were generally in collections
    • These pieces are musical portraits of masked guests at a Marco gras ball

    20 short pieces


    "Eusebius"

    • Schumanns pen name for his tender dreamy self
    • This piece presents him at his most introspective
    • Form

    AA BA B'A' BA


    "Florestan"

    • About Schumann's impetuous self
    • Built from a single explosive motive

    • Over and over and over
    • Like someone is trying to calm him down


    "Chiarina"

    • Musical protrait of the sixteen year old Clara wieck 
    • Starts passionately and ends fortissimo
  35. listening: Nocturne in f sharp op 15 no 2
    By Frederic Chopin




    Very elegant piece

    • A nocturne is a song that Evokes the feeling of night 
    • Song like

    Very free (rubato)

    • Chopin avoids sharp demarcations and literal returns
    • The transitions seem to bubble up from one another
  36. Frederic Chopin
    orn near Warsaw (1810)

    His father ran a private school for boys

    • He was an extraordinary pianist 
    • He moved to Paris

    Made his living as a teacher and composer

    A bit of a nationalist because most of his music had polish folk song origins

    He rarely played in public

    He hated giving concerts

    He really only composed for the piano

    Had a fling with an early feminist named Aurore Dudevant

    • Lasted ten years
    • He died of tuberculosis the year after it ended
  37. franz Liszt
    • Lerned music from his father in Hungary
    • He first performed in Vienna at age 11 on piano 
    • He became an accomplished pianist and became like a rockstar of his day

    He had affairs with married noblewomen

    He then took a position as a conductor and theater director in Weimar Germany

    This is where much of his most influential music is written
  38. program music
    erm for instrumental compositions associated with poems stories and the like

    • Has extra musical meaning
    • Captures an idea or elaborates on a story


    grew up in opera overtures
  39. absolute music
    no program, no extra musical ideas, it stands on its own
  40. tone poem
    type of program music



    Extended one movement symphonic work based on a story idea person etc.

    • Usually 10-15 minutes
    • Created by Franz Liszt
  41. incidental music
    movie score for a play

    type of program music
  42. Fanny Mendelssohn
    • Came from an upper class family
    • Felix's older sister
    • Highly prolific composer

    Her music didn't make it past her household because she was a girl

    She was expected to become a mother instead of a worker and was told to put music second
  43. Felix Mendelssohn
    • Came from a banking family of converted Jews
    • He was brought up with music and by the time he was 15 he was conducting and composing for his families orchestra

    He made a. Career as a composer, pianist, organist, conductor, musicologist, and educator

    Founded the Leipzig conservatory of music


    He was very interested in classical technique

    His music did go into romantic tecnique but not  as far as other composer he remains ground in classicism
  44. the program symphony
    Symphonies with programs spelled out movement by movement

    • Tone color and extended themes are important
    • Sonata form is harder to track
    • Other ideas help organize movements

    Thematic transformation

    The theme appears thought a symphony but changes to fit the program from movement to movement
  45. define thematic transformation
    Thematic transformation

    The theme appears thought a symphony but changes to fit the program from movement to movement
  46. Listening: "fantastic symphony: episodes in the life of an artist"
    Written by hector Berlioz

    Autobiographical fantasy 

    • Encouraged listeners to think that it had been written while he was under the influence of opium
    • Showed his love (from afar) with a prominent actress of the day 

    Lots of new effects

    Presents new ideas then jumbles them all together

    Effects of tone color

    • Huge orchestra
    • Single musical theme that repeats in all movements as a representation of the musicians beloved or "idée fixe" 

    Begins very romanticized and the last time we see it it is a parody of the origional theme


    First movement: reveries, passions


    He recalls his feelings for the woman

    • Halting and passionate growing to a high energy
    • Loosely in sonata form
    • Lots go against classical principals

    • Chromatic scales that do not connect to anything
    • Recapitulation is extended to the point it includes a whole new melody


    Second movement: a ball


    He encounters his beloved at a ball

    Dance movement (waltz)

    ABA form

    The idée fixe first appears in the trio 

    Third movement: a scene in the country


    Scene set in the country where he spies his beloved

    • Duet played by an English horn and an offstage oboe
    • Idée fixe returns in a very agitated transformation

    Fourth movement: March to the scaffold 


    He dreams he has killed his beloved

    He is condemned to death and the idée fixe appears to be stopped by the slam of a guillotine


    • Two themes that are orchestrated more like a football band then a symphony 
    • Idée fixe is played but cut off by the sound of a guillotine chop

    Fifth movement: dream of a witches sabbath


    Finds himself at a witches mass. The beloved melody. Is heard but in a twisted way she is who the witches are waiting for

    She joins in there devilish orgies 


    • It was typical for berloiz to add a fifth movement to the traditional four
    • Idée fixe is played here very changed in a fast jig rhythem
    • Dies irae is used 
    • Witches round dance ends this movement

    • Free fugue - gives a feeling of tumult and confusion
    • Climax is when the fugue is heard with the dies irae

    Idée fixe is forgotten
  47. hector Berlioz
    • Received a spotty musical education as a child
    • First went to medical school but left to go to the Paris conservatory of music instead
    • Inspired by literary models

    Like Shakespeare

    Two very bad marriages

    One to Harried Smithson (subject of the idée fixe in this piece)

    Managed to have all of his large compositions performed

    He was an amazing orchestrator 

    He supported himself as a composer, conductor, and music journalist

    Was a music critic

    Would heckle performances if he didn't like them


    His last years were spent in physical pain and depression

    He died in 1869
  48. what made Verdi's opera so unique
    Verdi has a commitment to the human voice

    He never allowed the voice to be overshadowed by the orchestra

    Showed a special talent for writing catchy tunes and romantic melodies

    • He loved the dramatic character of his operas
    • Opera for the public
  49. what was the orchestra's role in verdi's operas
    He created a much richer role for the orchestra

    Expanded in passages of recitative and near recitative

    Mozart could use only harpsichord during these passages

    In arias and duets the role is smaller 

    But he uses rich harmony to underline high points and climaxes
  50. Listening Rigoletto
    Written by Giuseppe Verdi





    It's from victor Hugo's le roi s'amuse

    With some changes that the censor demanded

    The story 

    The scene is set in the 16th century at the court of mantua in Italy

    Rigoletto is the hunchbacked jester of the duke

    • He is cynical and hates the courtiers
    • He has a daughter named Gilda who he keeps from sight

    • Duke finds out about her and wants to add her to his list of conquests
    • He manages to seduce her by lying

    • Rigoletto hires an assassin (Sparafucile) 
    • Lures the duke into a broken down inn with the help of his sister (Maddalena) where Rigoletto and Gilda watch through a crack in the wall





    Aria and quartet (act 3)

    • Recitative - duke enters the inn dressed as a military officer and demands service at the inn (Gilda cries out a she recognizes him
    • Aria "la Donna e mobile"

    • While waiting for his drink the duke talks about the fickleness of women
    • This aria is in strophic form

    Recitative

    Verdi keeps the orchestra moving as Sparafucile makes sure that this is the man Rigoletto wants killed

    Quartet "Bella figlia dell'amore"

    • Duke presses his attention of Maddalena 
    • Gilda is horrified 

    Andante

    • Duke persues Maddalena more
    • Form is ABA' coda 
    • Four voices form romantic harmonies (and modulation)
    • Andante ends with all four voices

    • Different stuff all going together at the same time
    • Kinda like stretto 


    Recitative

    Rigoletto tells his daughter to go to Vienna

    No orchestra

    She does not obey and is killed instead of the duke and when Rigoletto returns he goes mad with grief
  51. Giuseppe Verdi
    Son of a storekeeper he had a spotty education

    • He played organ and conducted a band nearby
    • A merchant became his patron and sent him to music school in Milan

    • Verdi scored huge success with his opera Nabucco
    • He then composed operas at a furious rate

    He was a tough businessman

    Drove hard bargains and insisted on supervising his new operas

    His first marriage ended with the death of his wife and two children

    • Bore the scar his entire life
    • May explain some of the moving scenes between fathers and daughters in his his operas

    • He remarried to Giuseppina Strepponi who was a singer
    • By the time he died he was well known and admired and nearly 300,000 people saw him to his grave
  52. Singspiel
    German comic opera

    Beautiful Italian like arias 

    • Spoken dialogue
    • Middle class characters 
    • Poked fun at upper class 
    • People often were in nature and it often contained supernatural elements
    • Lots of folk/nationalistic themes

    Lots of drinking beer and lots of hunting

    Most famous is mozart's magic flute
  53. German romantic opera
    • Like a singspiel but with more romantic elements
    • Always a spookier scene

    Devil usually makes an appearance

    Extreme emotion
  54. describe wagers ideas about "total art" and "music drama"
    He called his opera "music drama"

    • Music in these works shares the honors with poetry drama and philosophy
    • He called this gesamtkunstwerk or total work of art

    • Very unified form of opera
    • Music is closely matched to words
    • Dramas deal with philosophical issues

    Use of myth (very romantic idea)

    Usually quite long
  55. Leitmotivs
    Musical motive associated with a particular thing in the drama


    • Lengthy
    • Not that many tunes
    • Chromatic and dissonant

    • Could be a person or idea or symbol
    • Can be very mechanical but can also do great with thematic transportation
    • Provided unity thought the piece
    • Let you know what the character is thinking about

    • Or act as foreshadowing 
    • Or let you know what is really going on

    Singing about love but have a hateful motive below
  56. Listening: the nibelung's ring
    Written by Richard Wagner





    • Sources for the ring cycle is the Iceland mythology and the niebelunglied story
    • Huge musical drama stretching over four separate nights of 3-5 hours each

    Tale is basically about the moral decline of the world brought about by greed and lust for power

    First night: das rheingold

    Shows us events whose consequences will be played out for the next nights

    • A lump of gold is stolen from the bottom of the Rhine river (and from its mermaid owners) by a dwarf (alberich)
    • Gods take it from him
    • It is forged into a ring, that is cursed to cause the owner to renounce the love that could save them (love even extending to mean compassion in all forms)


    The next 3 nights generations pass and everyone is brought to grief for the object

    Hero named Siegfried is born who can defy the gods but he dies from everyone else's pursuit of the ring

    The Valkyrie, act 1 scene i  (second of the four nights)


    General features of this 

    • The orchestra carrying the leitmotivs of the particular people depicts the characters thoughts and feelings 
    • Leitmotivs are changed slightly for each new appearance 

    Shows changes in characters mindset

    Singers deliver a free formed declamation of words

    Never gives way to aria


    Siegmund and Sieglinde (two of Wotan [leader of gods] children) meet and have an incestuous union 

    Sieglinde's husband duels and kills Siegmund 

    Wotan can't interfere because of his interaction with the ring

    Sieglinde escapes to have the child


    Starts with Siegmund stumbling into a dwelling after being chased by enemies during a thunderstorm 

    He collapses onto the hearth and is unconscious 

    Sieglinde enters from the back from and finds him

    Love at first sight 

    Siegmund awakes and cries for a drink

    She fetches him one and while drinking his eyes fall on her and he falls in love

    They exchange information

    • Then she goes to get him mead 
    • Lovers share the mead

    She won't let him leave

    Romantic new harmonization of the melody

    Hunding (her husband) returns
  57. Richard Wagner
    • Was born during the napoleonic wars
    • His stepfather was an actor and writer and the boy turned into an intellectual

    Loved Shakespeare and Beethoven

    • Worked as an opera conductor
    • Wrote many books setting up the principals of his music drama
    • He gained the support of king Ludwig II of Bavaria 

    • Allowed him to produce his Music drama
    • Built an opera house solely for his music dramas where they continue to only play Wagner (Bayreuth Festpielaus)

    Married twice
  58. Talk about the Nationalist's ideals especially the russian nationalist group. what is the group's name?
    • Use modes and scales that aren't necessarily tonal
    • Embraces ethnic and linguistic ideals

    Native folk song and folk tunes and rhythms and legends became popular to use in music

    Russia 

    • Mighty Handful, mighty five, or kuchka
    • Composers who decided to write amateurish on purpose

    • Modest Mussorgsky
    • Rimsky-korsakav
    • Borodin
    • Balakhierev
    • Cesarcui

    The choose Russian subjects
  59. what were the primary subjects for late romantic opera
    Modern day subjects were chosen for operas

    Emphasized the sorted and violent aspects of live 

    Great example is Carmen which is about a gypsy who seduces a soldier who abandons his regiment and fiancé for her then stabs her to death in a jealous rage at the end
  60. giacomo puccini
    Main Italian opera composer after Verdi

    Had a special gift for short intense vocal melodies

    Touched by new realistic tendencies of late romantic opera but stayed away from harsh dramatic messages

    • Ranges from the Wild West to Rome to Napoleon 
    • Specialized in portraits of helpless woman in hopeless situations
  61. Listening: Madame butterfly
    • By Giacomo Puccini 
    • Set in the opening of Japanese harbors to trade with the USA 
    • Lieutenant Pinkerton marries a 15 year old geisha Cho-Cho- San

    • He called her madam butterfly
    • He sails away without honoring the Japanese ceremony
    • She persists he will return

    • He does but with his real American wife with him
    • Cho (now mother of his child) kills herself


    "Un bel di" aria from act II

    In response to her maids doubts cho sings the operas most famous number 

    • A fantasy about pinkertons return
    • Melody has a floating quality

    Because of great orchestration and how high in the sopranos range it is

    Aira takes on a more free cast

    • Mixes aria and recitative like declamation
    • Main melody expresses her joy of him returning to her which is sheer delusion

    Orchestra takes up the intensified melody to end the aria
  62. Symphonic poem
    • Genera created by Franz Liszt 
    • One movement orchestral composition with a program
    • It is formally free with no set form
    • Most popular symphonic poems are by Strauss and Tchaikovsky
  63. Tchaikovsky
    Born in the Russian countryside and moved to st. Petersburg when he was 8 

    • He worked for a few years as a clerk when he entered the St. Petersburg conservatory 
    • He was made a professor at age 26 at the Moscow conservatory

    He composed prolifically 

    6 symphonies, 11 operas, ballet

    He wrote many symphonic poems but he usually called them overture-fantasy or symphonic fantasia 


    • Gained recognition outside of Russia and toured as a conductor 
    • He attempted suicide more than once

    • He worried his homosexuality would be exposed
    • Married once to a highly unstable young woman

    They split after a matter of weeks and she died in an asylum


    He was subsidized by a wealthy widow named Nadezhda Von Meck

    • They never met (by mutual agreement)
    • She would commission from him and gave him annuity
    • This was terminated without explanation by the widow
    • However Tchaikovsky's position in music was secured 

    He died after accidentally drinking unboiled water during a cholera epidemic
  64. Listening:Pictures at an exhibition
    Written by Modest Musorgsky




    1874 a famous painter had an exhibition of his paintings (Hartmann)



    • Mussorgsky wrote music that you might have imagined you heard while walking through the exhibition looking at various works
    • Originally for piano solo but was reorchestrated for orchestra by Ravel which is the form I which it is usually heard

    Promenade (1) 

    This first movement does not refer to a picture but depicts the composer strolling through the gallery

    • Same music returns several times with changes in mood
    • Based of a Russian folk song (trumpet opening)


    Gnomus

    • Russian folk art drawing of a nutcracker
    • Rhythms are very ungainly

    Promenade (2)

    Promenade suggests that the  composer is musing as he walks along

    The great gate at Kiev 

    • Last and longest number
    • Spins a fantasy of a architectural design by Hartmann that was never excited
    • Contains 2 Russian melodies and ends very grandiosely
  65. Written by Modest Musorgsky
    Son of a landowner 

    Was suppost to go to become an officer in the Russian imperial guard

    • Could not ignore his desire to be a composer
    • Worked as a clerk while he experimented with composition

    He came to it late in his life

    He joined the Kuchka

    He never felt secure in his tecnique and relied on Nikolai for criticism



    Led a grim life

    He was an alcoholic, was filled with self doubt, and was unstable

    Died from alcohol and epilepsy at the age of 42
  66. talk about brahms in terms of his style of music and writing
    • Brahms gravitated towards Vienna 
    • Rejected many of the innovations of the early romantics
    • Went back to classical genres, forms, and style

    • Devoted major effort to traditional genres
    • Only romantic genres he worked in were lied and characteristic piano piece

    His goal was to temper the richness of romantic emotion with the strength and poise of classicism
  67. Listening: violin concerto in D
    Written by Johannes Brahms






    • Written for a close friend
    • Follows many classical ideals

    • First movement is in double exposition form
    • Last movement is a rondo

    Third movement (rondo)

    First theme (A) resembles gypsy fiddling 

    • Much of this movement is played in double stops
    • Traditional aaba' form 

    • a' is made interesting by compressing the main rhythmic figure in quicker and quicker repetition
    • Happens again in the first rondo episode (B)

    • Upward scale in solo violin and answer by a lower octave downward scale
    • It returns the opposite way with the first scale in the low register and the downward scale in the ruler register

    • In the second rondo episode a shift of meter to ¾ occurs
    • Coda presents a version of the piece in 6/8 time 

    As a march tempo
  68. talk about Johannes Brahms in terms of his life
    • Son of an orchestral musician he Received  piano lessons early 
    • When he was 20 he met Robert and Clara Schumann

    • They took him into their house and encouraged him
    • Soon after Robert was put in an insane asylum

    Brahms and Clara became very close after this


    He signed a manifesto condemning the music of Liszt and Wagner

    • Turned out chamber music, songs, and piano pieces
    • Then his first symphony at 43
    • Would write 4 of them total 
    • Wrote a lot of choral music and many popular music tunes including waltzes
  69. talk about mahler in terms of his music
    embraced the excesses of romanticism that Brahms had shrunk from

    • Wrote huge program symphonies
    • Works encoded metaphysical or spiritual messages

    His music is set apart because his en is deliberate 

    Distortion

    • Mahler tends to make slight distortions of melody, motive, and harmony
    • this distortion sounds nostalgic and melancholy

    knowledges the inability to recapture the freshness of romantic music
  70. Listening: symphony number 1
    Written by Gustav Mahler


    Special kind of counterpoint

    • Picks instruments to play momentary solos which are heard in counterpoint to other solo instruments 
    • Changing combinations create a kaleidoscopic effect 

    Third movement


    Funeral march is also a personal lament about lost love

    Section 1

    • Parodies frere Jacques (minor mode and slow tempo
    • Slow march takes over  played in the double bass in its high register
    • Music dies out Oma drumbeat figure played in the harp then on a single repeated note

    Section 2

    Fragmentary dance music phrases pared with fragments of a funeral march

    Section 3

    • "Trio"
    • Funeral march dissolves into a faster gentler throb
    • Melody is a theme about lost love

    Bittersweet

    Halted by the gong

    Section 4

    • Combines elements from the first 2 sections
    • New counterpoint in the trumpets is added
    • Movement ends with gong strokes
  71. talk about Gustav Mahler in terms of his life
    • Born to an abusive father he lived near military barracks
    • Studied at the Vienna conservatory before beginning as a conductor
    • Only in summers did he have time to compose
    • Married to alma Schindler 

    She divorced him and remarried several times

    His life was clouded with psychological turmoil 

    Consulted with Siegmund Freud

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