MSK week 1 part 1

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  1. Explain the changes in cartilage with age.
    • Normally, chondroitin 4-sulfate is the predominant form, with low levels of Keratin sulfate.
    • With age, chondroitin 6-sulfate becomes the predominant form with increased levels of keratin sulfate.
  2. Describe the role of synovial tissue and synovial fluid.
    • Capsule: a joint pouch containing synovial fluid.
    • Synovium: Tissue that lines the capsule and creates synovial fluid (2cc in each knee).
  3. Compare normal, inflammatory, non inflammatory, and septic conditions of synovial fluid.
    • Normal: 1-4 mL, clear to pale yellow, transparent, very high viscosity, few WBCs (mostly monocytes), glucose equal to serum. No crystals or cultures.
    • Inflammatory conditions: increase volume, cloudy, yellow/green, opaque, low viscosity, low glucose, 10k-20k WBCs/mm3 (mostly neutrophils), positive in gout and CPPD crystals.
    • Non Inflammatory conditions: Like normal conditions with increased volume, straw color, slightly lower viscosity (still high), and 500 WBCs/mm3.
    • Septic: Like inflammatory conditions, but positive for cultures, and negative for crystals.  Has 50k WBCs/mm3.
  4. Describe the effect of aging on the intervertebral disk.
    • Cell concentration and water content of the nucleus pulposus decrease, making it more dense and stiff.
    • The anulus fibrosus inner portion increases with age, the fibrocartilage degenerates, and the outer lamellae become stiff.
  5. Explain how ligament injuries are graded.
    • Ligament injury always occurs from excessive tension, and dislocations always include ligament injury:
    • Grade I: Pain, no instability
    • Grade II: some torn fibers, minimal instability.
    • Grade III: completely torn
  6. Define Anisotropic.
    Strong in tension, weak in compression (like a rope). Mechanical forces depend on the orientation of the force applied.
  7. Define Crimp.
    The ligaments form wavy patterns that will straighten out under low stiffness before stretching at high stiffness. (the non-linear portion of a stress curve where collagen fibers straighten out).
  8. Compare osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, and how to recognize them in a slide.
    • Osteoblasts will be along the surface.  Osteoblasts become osteocytes after becoming trapped in a lacuna.
    • Osteocytes will be in lacunas (white border).
    • Osteoclasts will be large multinucleated cells that descended from monocytes.
  9. Identify the regional zones and describe the function of these zones in epiphyseal cartilage and their role in bone formation
    • The epiphyseal plate has many zones.
    • Zone 1: Resting cartilage (epiphyseal end)
    • Zone 2: Proliferating cartilage (look for stacked coins)
    • Zone 3: Hypertrophic cartilage. (bigger cells)
    • Zone 4: Calcified cartilage.
    • Zone 5: Zone of ossification (diaphyseal end, near the bone marrow)
Card Set
MSK week 1 part 1
MSK week 1 part 1
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