Chem chap 9

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  1. Bohr's theory of an Atom
    when an atom absorbs energy in the form of heat, light or electricity it often re emits that energy as light.
  2. Bohr's theory (model)
    Orbit- is a circular path around the shell of the nucleus at definite distance (fixed energy) in which electron moves (revolves)
  3. Drawbacks of Bohr's Model
    Not fully successful in explaining line spectrum (emission, spectrum) exhibited by (colors) different elements with different atomic number (number of electrons)
  4. Quantum Mechanical Theory (Wave theory)
    Orbital- is a three dimensional space around the nucleus where the probability of locating an electron is maximum at one particular time

    orbitals are represented by a number (1,2,3,4..) and a letter (s,p,d,f..)
  5. Electron Configuration
    Distribution of electrons of an element into various orbitals of increasing enery
  6. orbit:


  7. Pauli's Exclusion Principle
    A maximum of only two electrons with opposite spin can be accommodated into any given orbital
  8. Quantized orbital
    orbitals with fixed definite amount of energy
  9. Degenerate orbital
    orbitals with equal (same) amount of energy

  10. Hund's Rule
    Degenerate orbitals (equal amount of energy) are singly full with parallel spin before they are paired up with opposite spin
  11. Orbital Diagram
    Each orbiral is represented as a square box
  12. Group number
    stands for the number of electrons in the outermost shell orbit.
  13. valence electrons
    Electrons of the outermost shell

    corresponds to group number of an element
  14. Period number
    stands for the number of shells into which electrons are distributed
  15. Periodic Trend in properties of Elements in Period table.
    Atomic size-----increases-------- decreases

    Metallic character--- increases----- decreases

    Nonmetallic-------- decreases----- increases

    Ionization energy--- decrease------ increases

    Electron negitivity---decreases----increases
  16. Metals tend to lose electrons and for positive ion (Na+, Mg2+, Al3+) 

    Bigger atoms can easily lose electrons to form cation (positive ion)

    Non metals tend to gain electrons to form negative ions (F1-, O2-, N3-)
  17. Ionization energy
    • is the energy required to remove electrons from neutral gaseous atom.
    • further from the nucleus
  18. What is the most reactive metal of the period table?
    Fr-Francium (lower left side)
  19. What is the most reactive of NON metal of the periodic table
    Fluorine (upper right corner)
  20. Compare the size

    Na°+ Na1+
    Cl°   Cl1-
    Fe2+  Fe3+
    N  O
    Li  Na
    • Na°>Na1+
    • Cl°>Cl1-
    • Fe2+>Fe3+
    • N>O
    • Li<Na
  21. Electron Negativity
    Less attractive
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Chem chap 9
2013-11-10 01:02:25

Chem chap 9
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