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abnormal sounds superimposed on breath sounds, including sibilant wheezes (formally called simply wheezes), sonorous wheezes (formally called rhonchi), crackles (formally called rales) and pleural friction rubs.
the collapse of alveoli, preventing the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
procedure preformed by passing a bronchoscope or a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope (the instrument of choice in most cases) allows visualization of the larynx, the trachea, and the bronchi.
an abnormal cardiac condition characterized by hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart as a result of hypertension of the pulmonary circulation.
acute inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and accessory sinuses, usually accompanied by edema of the mucosa and nasal discharge.
- short, discrete, interrupted crackling or bubbling sounds that are most commonly heard during inspiration.
- sound like hairs being rolled between the fingers close to the ear.
- thought to occur when air is forced through respiratory passages narrowed by fluid, mucus or pus.
- associated with inflammation or infection of the small bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.
slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike or dark purple discoloration of the skin resulting from excessive amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood.
shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing; may be caused by disturbances in the lungs, certain heart conditions, and hemoglobin deficiency
an abnormal circulatory condition in which an embolus (e.g. a foreign substance, blood clot, fat, air, or amniotic fluid) travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel
accumulation of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural space
bleeding from the nose
an increase in the seriousness of a disease or disorder as marked by greater intensity in the signs or symptoms
caused by external factors, such as environmental allergens (pollen, dust, feathers, animal dander, foods, etc.)
caused by internal causes, not fully understood, but often triggered by respiratory tract infection.
greater than normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood.
the condition in which the amount of air that enters the alveoli and takes part in gas exchange is not adequate for the body's metabolic needs.
an abnormal state in which a person must sit or stand to breathe deeply or comfortably.
Pleural friction rubs
low-pitched, grating or creaking, lung sounds that occur when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respiration.
a collection of air or gas in the pleural space, causing the lung to collapse.
musical, high-pitched, squeaking or whistling sounds, caused by the rapid movement of air through narrowed bronchioles.
low-pitched, loud, course, snoring sounds heard on exhalation.
harsh snoring sound
abnormally rapid rate of breathing.
inserting a needlelike instrument into the pleural space and removing the fluid.
capable of causing disease.
Lower respiratory tract
- filters, warms and moistens air as it enters the nares
- contains nasal septum that separates the nares
- lateral to the nasal cavities are three scroll like bones called turbinates or conchae which cause air to move over a larger surface area allowing more time for warming and moisturizing the air
- communicating with the nasal structures are paranasal sinuses called the frontal, maxillary, sphenoid and ethmoid cavities which are hallow areas that make the skull lighter and give voice resonance
- 5 inches long extending from base of skull to the esophagus and situated just in front of the vertebrae
- passageway for food and air
- 3 subdivisions at the distal end of pharynx-nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx
- organ of voice
- supported by nine areas of cartilage and connects the pharynx with the trachea
- largest area of cartilage is composed of two fused plated called the thyroid cartilage or adams apple
- contains the epiglottis a large leaf shaped area of cartilage, protects the larynx when swallowing
- tubelike structure that extends approximately 4.5 inches to the midchest where it divides into the right and left bronchi
- lies anterior to the esophagus and connects the larynx with the bronchi
- as the trachea enters the lungs, it divides into the right and left bronchi
- right bronchus enter the right lung and is larger in diameter and more vertical in descent
- left bronchus enters the left lung smaller in diameter and slightly horizontal in position
- large bronchi continue to divide into smaller structures called bronchioles
- bronchioles divide into smaller tubelike structures called terminal bronchioles or alveolar ducts
- end structures of the bronchial tree are alveoli
- gas exchange takes place in alveoli
- each alveolus is surrounded by a blood capillary where diffusion of carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs