Care of the Patient with a Respiratory Disorder

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  1. Adventitious
    abnormal sounds superimposed on breath sounds, including sibilant wheezes (formally called simply wheezes), sonorous wheezes (formally called rhonchi), crackles (formally called rales) and pleural friction rubs.
  2. Atelectasis
    the collapse of alveoli, preventing the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
  3. Bronchoscopy
    procedure preformed by passing a bronchoscope or a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope (the instrument of choice in most cases) allows visualization of the larynx, the trachea, and the bronchi.
  4. Cor pumonale
    an abnormal cardiac condition characterized by hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart as a result of hypertension of the pulmonary circulation.
  5. Coryza
    acute inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and accessory sinuses, usually accompanied by edema of the mucosa and nasal discharge.
  6. Crackles
    • short, discrete, interrupted crackling or bubbling sounds that are most commonly heard during inspiration.
    • sound like hairs being rolled between the fingers close to the ear.
    • thought to occur when air is forced through respiratory passages narrowed by fluid, mucus or pus.
    • associated with inflammation or infection of the small bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.
  7. Cyanosis
    slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike or dark purple discoloration of the skin resulting from excessive amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood.
  8. Dyspnea
    shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing; may be caused by disturbances in the lungs, certain heart conditions, and hemoglobin deficiency
  9. Embolism
    an abnormal circulatory condition in which an embolus (e.g. a foreign substance, blood clot, fat, air, or amniotic fluid) travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel
  10. Empyema
    accumulation of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural space
  11. Epistaxis
    bleeding from the nose
  12. Exacerbation
    an increase in the seriousness of a disease or disorder as marked by greater intensity in the signs or symptoms
  13. Extrinsic
    caused by external factors, such as environmental allergens (pollen, dust, feathers, animal dander, foods, etc.)
  14. Intrinsic
    caused by internal causes, not fully understood, but often triggered by respiratory tract infection.
  15. Hypercapnia
    greater than normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood.
  16. Hypoventilation
    the condition in which the amount of air that enters the alveoli and takes part in gas exchange is not adequate for the body's metabolic needs.
  17. Hypoxia
    oxygen deficiency
  18. orthopnea
    an abnormal state in which a person must sit or stand to breathe deeply or comfortably.
  19. Pleural friction rubs
    low-pitched, grating or creaking, lung sounds that occur when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respiration.
  20. Pneumothorax
    a collection of air or gas in the pleural space, causing the lung to collapse.
  21. Sibilant wheezes
    musical, high-pitched, squeaking or whistling sounds, caused by the rapid movement of air through narrowed bronchioles.
  22. Sonorous wheezes
    low-pitched, loud, course, snoring sounds heard on exhalation.
  23. Stertorous
    harsh snoring sound
  24. Tachypnea
    abnormally rapid rate of breathing.
  25. Thoracentesis
    inserting a needlelike instrument into the pleural space and removing the fluid.
  26. Virulent
    capable of causing disease.
  27. Upper respiratory tract
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
  28. Lower respiratory tract
    bronchial tree
  29. Nose
    • filters, warms and moistens air as it enters the nares
    • contains nasal septum that separates the nares
    • lateral to the nasal cavities are three scroll like bones called turbinates or conchae which cause air to move over a larger surface area allowing more time for warming and moisturizing the air
    • communicating with the nasal structures are paranasal sinuses called the frontal, maxillary, sphenoid and ethmoid cavities which are hallow areas that make the skull lighter and give voice resonance
  30. Pharynx
    • throat
    • 5 inches long extending from base of skull to the esophagus and situated just in front of the vertebrae
    • passageway for food and air
    • 3 subdivisions at the distal end of pharynx-nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx
  31. Larynx
    • organ of voice
    • supported by nine areas of cartilage and connects the pharynx with the trachea
    • largest area of cartilage is composed of two fused plated called the thyroid cartilage or adams apple
    • contains the epiglottis a large leaf shaped area of cartilage, protects the larynx when swallowing
  32. Trachea
    • windpipe
    • tubelike structure that extends approximately 4.5 inches to the midchest where it divides into the right and left bronchi
    • lies anterior to the esophagus and connects the larynx with the bronchi
  33. Bronchial tree
    • as the trachea enters the lungs, it divides into the right and left bronchi
    • right bronchus enter the right lung and is larger in diameter and more vertical in descent
    • left bronchus enters the left lung smaller in diameter and slightly horizontal in position
    • large bronchi continue to divide into smaller structures called bronchioles
    • bronchioles divide into smaller tubelike structures called terminal bronchioles or alveolar ducts
    • end structures of the bronchial tree are alveoli
    • gas exchange takes place in alveoli
    • each alveolus is surrounded by a blood capillary where diffusion of carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs
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Care of the Patient with a Respiratory Disorder
2013-11-11 02:27:01
Respiratory Disorder LPN

Mosby chapter 49
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