BILD 3 Midterm 2: Plants

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HollyBergen
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BILD 3 Midterm 2: Plants
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2013-12-10 01:07:29
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BILD UCSD organismic evolutionary biology
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BILD 3 UCSD organismic evolutionary biology
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  1. 4 Main characteristics of Plants/Green Algae:
    • 1. Autotrophs (self-feeders)
    • 2. Have cell walls (made of cellulose. Structure)
    • 3. Chlorophyll (in chloroplasts)
    • 4. Store starch in plasids in their cells (carbs for energy)
  2. 3 Main Protist Eukaryotic Groups in Archaeplastida:
    • 1. Red algae
    • 2. Chlorophytes
    • 3. Charophyceans

    • (4th is Non-protist Land Plants)
  3. Crop Domestication & 3 first dominant crops
    • - Maize, wheat, rice.
    • Dawn of civilization 13,000 - 10,000 YA.
    • Could have determined who became dominant culture (due to LUCK of who lived WHERE?). Move away from hunter/gatherer lifestyle.
  4. Ecosystem services
    • A benefit an organism gives us naturally
    • ex. Plants photosynthesize for sugar/glucose & byproduct is Oxygen we use. Loss of complex plant communities to cultivation & suburbanization has resulted in concentration of CO2 -> CLIMATE CHANGE! (process of chopping down trees releases even MORE!)
  5. Dominant Primary Producers:
    • PLANTS!!
    • They are the base for most major eco-systems
  6. *KNOW THIS PHYLOGENY OF GREEN PLANTS*
  7. 5 Main steps in Plants transition from water to land (in order trait evolved):
    • 1. Cuticle= Waxy covering, prevents water loss (like skin)
    • 2. Pores= Holes that allow for gas exchanges. (Need CO2 & oxygen)
    • 3. Stomata= Opens/closes w/guard cells & controls water loss through pores

    • *PLANTS UPRIGHT*
    • 4. Vascular tissue= Leaves different (in dry, they're much smaller surface area)
    • 5. Roots. Absorb nutrients & anchor

  8. Evolution of vascular system
    (Series of elongated tube-cells end to end)
    • Start with: Simple water-conducting cells. Little structural support. Found in mosses.
    • 1. First vascular tissue: Primary wall reinforced w/LIGNIN rings for support (LIGNIN=Polymer w/high mechanical strength) Found in fossils.
    • 2. Tracheids: Same wall w/Lignin & GAPS. Found in all vascular plants.
    • 3. Vessels: Gaps in 1o & 2o cell walls (efficient water transport). Found in angeosperms
  9. Green Algae:
    (Similarities & differences to land plants)
    LICHENS are an association b/w fungi & green algae

    • Shared traits w/land plants:
    • - Photosynthetic pigments
    • - Cell wall mostly cellulose
    • - Starch synthesized as storage

    • Differences to land plants:
    • MOSTLY aquatic
    • Have swimming gametes
    • Submerged in water
    • Small, simple body. No need for vascular system to transport water & nutrients
    • Cell dinsity similar to that of water (allows for absorption of water & nutrients)
    • No need for support tissues, since not upright
  10. What is the key difference b/w aquatic & terrestrial plants?
    = Reproduction.

    Old plant lineages - Swimming gametes. Required water.
  11. Algae's zygotes are the unlike humans; they have a _____________ haploid & a ____________________ diploid.  

    (Results in no alternation of generations)
    • - multicellular
    • - unicellular
  12. SPOROPHYTE:
    • (2n)
    • The diploid individual which produces reproductive cells called spores. These form gametophytes through meiosis...
  13. GAMETOPHYTES:
    • (n)
    • The haploid individual which produces haploid gametes. The union of 2 gametes (fertilization) results in diploid zygote which gives rise to new sporophyte
    • It is produced from mitotic cell division of spores, which are produced by meiosis in sporophytes.
  14. In land plants, both stages (gametophyte & sporophyte) are __________________.

    (Results in alternation of generations)
    • - multicellular
  15. Non-vascular plants reproduction method:
    • IN WATER ->Sperm swim to egg
    • (Swimming gametes)
    • GAMETOPHYTE DOMINANT
    • Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte for nutrition b/c it's large & long-lived
    • Almost always multicellular haploid but ZYGOTE is DIPLOID & NOT multicellular
    • NO alternation of generations
    • ex.  mosses
  16. Seedless vascular plants reproduction method:
    • IN WATER -> Sperm swims to egg
    • (Swimming gametes)
    • BUT Spores dispersed by wind
    • SPOROPHYTE DOMINANT (but when young, dependent on gametophyte
    • Gametophyte reduces in size, short-lived
    • Has roots & leaves
    • Sporophyte grows out & BECOMES DOMINANT
    • ex. FERNS

  17. Seed plants reproduction method:
    • GYMNOSPERMS (Gymno ="Bare")
    • A plant, such as a conifer, whose seeds are not enclosed within an ovary.
    • NO MORE WATER!
    • SPOROPHYTE DOMINANT
    • Gametophyte greatly reduced
    • In huge pine tree, gametophyte is small (in cones) & seed is embryo of early gametophyte.
    • Winds disperse pollen
    • ex. CONIFERS/ Pine trees

  18. Flowering plants
    • ANGIOSPERMS (Angio= "Vessel or container")
    • a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel.
    • NO MORE WATER!
    • SPOROPHYTE DOMINANT!
    • Gametophyte greatly reduced
    • Winds disperse pollen. Pollen VERY WELL PROTECTED. Survives in the wind.
    • Lands on female, seed created.
    • FRUITS ARE PLANT OVUMS
    • SEED DISPERSED VIA WIND OR ANIMALS
    • ex. flowering plants, fruits, veggies

  19. Main 4 evolutionary changes in plant reproduction
    • 1. Dominance from Gametophyte -> Sporophyte
    • 2. Sporophyte Dependent -> Sporophyte Independent
    • 3.Extreme reduction of Gametophye:
    • - Pollen grain (male)
    • - Embryo sac (female)
    • 4. Fertilization: Independent of water
  20. NON-VASCULAR PLANTS
    & 3 main examples
    • BRYOPHYTES
    • Mneumonic: Little Horny Mice

    • OLDEST
    • NOT tall; small bodies
    • NO vascular tissue (no transport)
    • NO true roots, stems leaves
    •  - Gametophyte dominant
    •  - Sporophyte dependent
    •  - Water required for fertilization

    • 1. Liverworts (Hepaticophyta)
    • - Thallus (entire body)
    • - Air pores which DONT OPEN & CLOSE (no stomata yet)
    • 2. Hornwarts (Anthocerophyta)
    • - Stomata present on sporophytes (opens/closes)
    • 3. Mosses (Bryophyta) MOST DIVERSE
    • - Stomata present on sporophytes
    • - Primitive UNREINFORCED water-conducting cells. (Tubes that grow tall to disperse spores)
  21. SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS
    & 3 main examples
    • Vascular tissues present for transport
    • - TRACHEIDS reinforced w/Lignin
    • True ROOTS, STEMS, LEAVES
    • - Sporophyte dominant
    • - Gametophyte Independent
    • - Water REQUIRED for fertilization
    • ex. ferns, lycophytes, horsetails

    • 1. Lycophytes (Lycophyta)
    • - Oldest lineage w/true roots & leaves
    • 2. Ferns (Pteridophyta)
    • - Diverse in tropics
    • - Grow as EPIPHYTES (Since no light @ floor)
    •   - Grow on trees or other objects
    •   - Not rooted in soil, not parasitic
    • 3. Selaginella (Resurrection Plant)
    • aka ROSE OF JERICHO.
    • - Dormant most of year, soaks up water VERY quickly, goes gree, photosynthesis quickly before going dormant again
  22. Purpose of Leaves, Roots, Stems:
    • Leaves = Photosynthesis
    • Roots = Absorb nutrients, anchor plant
    • Stems = Vascular system. Transport nutrients
  23. 5 Derived Traits of Seed Plants:
    • 1. Reduced gametophytes
    • 2. Heterospory (sperm&egg)
    • 3. Ovules (female)
    • 4. Pollen (male)
    • 5. Seeds
  24. Homospores vs Heterospores:
  25. 4 Phyla of Gymnosperms:
    • 1. Cycads (Cycadophyta)
    • 2. Ginkgo (Ginkgophyta)
    • 3. Gnetophytes (Gnetophyta)
    • 4. Conifers (Coniferophyta)
  26. Gymnosperm:
    Gnetophytes (Gnetophyta)
    • Mneumonic: Neat OLD fight
    • OLD, they survive 1,000 - 2,000 yrs
    • Woody vines, shrubs, trees
    • Pollen in cones, wind-dispersed
    • Angiosperm-like features:
    • - Vessels
    • - Flower-like reproductive features
  27. Gymnosperms:
    Conifers (Coniferophyta)
    • Wody shrubs or trees
    • Most evergreen; a few deciduous leaves
    • needle- or scale-like
    • Resistant to drought & freezing
    • Pollen in cones; wind-dispersed
    • HIGHER diversity FARTHER from equator
    • Monoecious = male & female cones separate, but usually on the same plant
    • Big cone = F
    • Small cone = M
  28. Conifers:
    Oldest, Biggest, Tallest
    • Oldest- Bristlecone Pine- 4900 years old
    • Biggest- Giant Sequoia- 250 ft
    • Tallest- Redwoods- 375 ft
  29. Anthophyta:
    Angiosperms (characteristics)
    • Vessels: Water transport
    • Flowers: Attract pollinators
    • Fruits: Seed dispersal
    • Ovary (fruit): Encloses seeds
  30. Flower Reproductive Structure
    • Male: Stamen -> Anther & Filament
    • Female: Carpel -> Stigma, Style, Ovary
  31. Bees who try to mate with orchids are a product of ________________.
    Coevolution
  32. Monicot vs Eudicot
    (2 main differences)
    Monicot: Flowers multiples of 3, Veins are parralel

    Eudicot: Flowers multples of 4 or 5, Veins are netlike

    • MONOCOTS:               EUDICOTS:
  33. Caryophyllales
    • Still undergo photosynthesis, get carbon from CO2, but live in poor soils w/no NUTRIENTS so they SUPPLIMENT those w/insects (for nitrogen)
    • ex. cacti, carnations, ice plants, & most carniverous plants like pitcher plant (tree shrew toilet)
  34. Characteristics of Fungi:
    • Eukaryotes (single or multi-celled)
    • Heterotrophs (absorb organic compounds from other organisms (dead or alive)
    • Outside body secretes digestive enzymes onto food sources & absorb released nutrients
    • Cell walls of CHITIN (not cellulose)
    • Mycology = Study of fungi
  35. Two fungus growth:
    • 1. Single-Celled: Yeasts.
    • ex. used in breads & beers
    • 2. Multi-celled: Mycelia
    • Mass of underground filaments that form body of a fungus
  36. Define Ploidy, Haploid, Diploid
    Number of sets of chromosomes in a cell

    • Haploid= 1 set of chromosomes
    • Diploid= 2 sets of chromosomes
  37. HUMAN REPRODUCTION vs
    ALGAE REPRODUCTION
    (n=haploid, 2n=diploid)

    • Humans: Parents (2n) donate (n) haploid cells (egg & sperm) -> Meiosis -> Fuse (fertilize) to form zygote -> (2n) mitosis & growth into (2n) adult

    • Algae: Multicellular adult (n) donates (n) eggs & sperm, they fuse (fertilize) to form (2n) Zygote which is UNICELLULAR -> Meiosis -> (n) spores -> Germination of (n) adult
    • DIFFERENCES: IN ALGAE, ZYGOTE IS ONLY DIPLOID CELL & NOT MULTICELLULAR.
    • IN HUMANS, ONLY HAPLOID CELLS ARE SPERM & EGG

  38. Hyphae
    • Make up the mycelium of a fungus.
    • Primarily haploid
    • Sometimes heterokaryotic: ("different nuclei")
    • hypha cell contains 2 haploid nuclei; one from each parent
  39. Fungus Reproduction
    • Start w/mycelium: 2 options
    • 1. Asexual (n) Spores through Mitosis
    • 2. Sexual: Mating types M or F but not distinctive. Hyphae membranes meet & fuse. Nuclei DONT (Heterokaryotic (n+n)) 1 cell, 2 nuclei. Fuse in karyogamy. Get zygote (2n) then Meiosis
  40. Fairy Rings
    Ring of fungi. Can grow overnight (after rain). All from one individual of underground mycelium. Dutch folklore= Where the devil churns his milk
  41. Ascomycetes
    • Mneumonic: My Seats are SACS
    • "Sac Fungi"
    • Ascus=Pore-like structure. Sexual. In sac.
    • Live in marine, freshwater & land
    • ex. morels & truffles (only underground, tht's why so expensive)
  42. Basidiomycetes
    • "Club Fungi"
    • Basidium= Clublike structure, Transient diploid stage in the life cycle
    • Muchrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi, mutualists, & plant parasites
  43. Negative effects of FUNGI:
    • Mold, mildew, rot
    • Pathogens, toxins, allergens
    • - Athlete's foot (tinea pedis)
    • - Ringworm (Tinea spp.)
    • - Yeast infections (Candida)
    • - Ergot (Grows on wheat. Responsible for Salem Witch trials, delirious)
    • - Cordycepts= Mind control fungus in insects. GROWS OUT OF HEADS. Thousands of species, that each specialize in a species of animal. Grows out of body & spores disperse out
  44. 3 Fungal life strategies:
    • 1. Saprophytes= Degrade dead organisms
    • 2. Parasites= Attack living organisms
    • 3. Mutualists= Coexist w/another organism
  45. 3 Fungal Mutualisms:
    • 1. LICHENS: Fungus & Green algae.
    • Basiodiomycota= Photosynthetic component: cyanobacteria or single-celled green algae. Evolved independently many times.
    • Harsh environments ex. Antarctic
    • 2. Mycorrhizae (80% of plant spp.)
    • Plant roots & soil fungi.
    • Benefits plant:
    • - Increased uptake of phosphorus & nitrogen
    • - Protects roots against attacks
    • Benefits fungus:
    • - Plant provides nutrients
    • 3. Fungus-Animal Symbiosis
    • Helping break down plant materials
    • ex. in guts of cows/grazing animals
    • ex. Leaf-cutter ants (DONT EAT THE LEAVES, THEY BRING PIECES OF THE LEAVES TO FEED THE FUNGUS & EAT THAT!)
  46. What feature is common to prokaryotes, fungi, and plants?

    A) a nucleus
    B) photosynthesis
    C) cell walls
    D) membership in the kingdom Monera
    E) single cells
    C) cell walls
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. 4. (4 pts) Which of the following statements about the domain Bacteria is true?

    A) All bacteria are "animal-like" in that they eat other organisms.
    B) All bacteria are "animal-like" in that they eat other organisms, and all bacteria have a membrane-bound nucleus.
    C) All bacteria lack a nucleus.
    D) All bacteria have a membrane-bound nucleus.
    E) All bacteria are multicellular organisms.
    C) All bacteria lack a nucleus.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which of the following options correctly represents the most likely sequence of the evolution of plants, from earliest to most recent?

    A) seedless vascular plants, angiosperms, bryophytes, gymnosperms
    B) bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, angiosperms, gymnosperms
    C) bryophytes, gymnosperms, seedless vascular plants, angiosperms
    D) bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms
    E) seedless vascular plants, bryophytes, angiosperms, gymnosperms
    D) bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Define the alternation of generations in a plant life cycle? Be sure to name each stage and describe whether each is haploid or diploid.
    A multicellular sporophyte (diploid) stage and a multicellular gametophyte (haploid) stage.
  50. True/False: The male/female division in the life cycle of angiosperms occurs in the sporophyte stage

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  51. Which of the following most INCORRECTLY pairs a cell w/the compound that makes up the structural base of its cell wall?

    A. protists = calcium carbonate
    B. bacteria = peptidoglycan
    C. plant = cellulose
    D. fungi = chitin
    A. protists = calcium carbonate

    Protists cell wall is made of silica, protein, and cellulose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Protists that eat other organisms via phagocytosis (i.e. digesting prey intracellularly) are generally called:

    A. algae
    B. paramecium
    C. slime molds
    D. protozoa
    e. none of the above
    D. protozoa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. A single-celled eukaryote has chloroplasts to obtain energy from sunlight & absorbs dead organic material from the environment in order to get building-block compounds. This is a:

    A. chemoheterotroph
    B. chemoautotroph
    C. photoautotroph
    D. parasite
    E. photoheterotroph
    E. photoheterotroph

    Photo = sunlight
    Hetero troph = Other feeding (from environment, not from self)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. A fungal spore has 8 picograms of DNA in its nucleus. After plasmogamy, but before karyogamy, there are(is) _______ nuclei(nucleus) and _______ picograms of DNA within a single cell

    A. 1 - 16
    B. 1 - 8
    C. 2 - 8
    D. 1 -4
    E. 2 - 16
    E. 2 - 16

    plasmogamy = fusion of cytoplasm. Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from 2 parents)

    karyogamy = Diploid (FUNGI ZYGOTE ONLY DIPLOID STAGE) Nuclei fuse
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. The oldest & largest non-clonal organisms are:
    • a. pterophytes
    • b. animals
    • c. angiosperms
    • d. mushrooms
    • e. gymnosperms
  56. In alternations of generations there is a gametophyte phase, which is _____________ and a sporophyte phase, which is ____________.

    A. multicellular diploid; unicellular haploid
    B. multicellular diploid; multicellular haploid
    C. multicellular haploid; multicellular diploid
    D. unicellular haploid; multicellular diploid
    C. multicellular haploid; multicellular diploid

    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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