BS105 Business Communications

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GeneticEntropy
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246088
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BS105 Business Communications
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2013-11-10 09:52:08
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BS105 communications essay writing research critical thinking planning exam
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1. Critical Thinking
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  1. Critical
    Thinking
  2. What is critical thinking, according to the unit content?
    • Rational thought process
    • Evaluation of information
    • Making sound judgements
    • Empathy - see writer's point of view
    • Openness to all possibilities
    • Essential to good research and writing
  3. What is critical thinking, according to researchers?
    • Defending yourself against too much information & too many points of view. (Pinto 2003)
    • Informed disobedience, but not wilful ignorance. (James, Hughes, Cappa 2010)
    • Synthesis of attitude, logic, reflection, and beliefs. (Thurmond 2001)
    • Analysis, reflection and evaluation of data or research. (Scriven & Paul 2003)
  4. What transformations occur due to critical thinking?
    • Belief ---> Deduction
    • Guess ---> Estimate
    • Preference ---> Evaluation
    • Inference ---> Logical Inference
    • Grouping ---> Classification
    • Noting Relationship ---> Noting Relationships
    • Supposing ---> Hypothesising
    • Judgement ---> Informed Judgement
    • No Reasons ---> Reasons
  5. What abilities does a critical thinker have?
    • Thinking independently
    • Developing insight into egocentricity / sociocentricity
    • Exercising fair-mindedness
    • Exploring thoughts & underlying feelings
    • Developing intellectual humility
    • Suspending judgement
    • Developing intellectual courage
  6. What strategies demonstrate critical thinking?
    • Refining generalisations / over-simplifications
    • Transferring insights to new contexts
    • Clarifying issues, conclusions & beliefs
    • Clarifying & analysing word & phrase meaning
    • Developing criteria for evaluation
    • Evaluating source credibility
    • Questioning deeply
  7. What are the features of a critical thinker's writing?
    • Content: Dedicated to presenting an argument
    • Sense of Audience: Communicates to a consistent audience
    • Clarity:  Simple language; Facts & theories; Lack of emotion
    • Analysis: Strengths & weaknesses; judgements & conclusions clear
    • Selection: Only most important points
    • Sequence: Points ordered by importance
    • Best Order: Logical flow so that argument makes sense
    • Group similar points: Discuss related points logically
    • Signposting: Use language to provide roadmarkers for direction and line of argument
  8. List some common fallacies.
    • Straw Man
    • False Dichotomy
    • Equivocation
    • Circular Reasoning
    • Argument by Analogy
    • Appeal to Authority
    • Ad Hominem
  9. Deconstructing
    Academic Texts 
  10. What are the 4 strategies for acquiring understanding?
    • 1. Prior Knowledge (PL)
    • 2. Background Reading
    • 3. Building Vocabulary
    • 4. Deconstructing Texts
  11. (1) What 3 questions inform us of our prior knowledge?
    • What do you already know?
    • What have you read?
    • What related concepts interest you?
  12. (2) A common strategy to begin research into a foreign topic is background reading. What sources are acceptable for uni-level background reading?
    • Introductory journal articles
    • Specialist news articles
    • Industry magazines
    • Broad, topic-covering, books
  13. (3) What 3 types of vocabulary should be recorded and periodically reviewed?
    • General vocabulary
    • Discipline-specific vocabulary
    • Unfamiliar words
  14. (3) What 5 things should you remember while you build your reading ability?
    • Take notes in notes and vocab journals
    • Seek main ideas, and distinguish them from supporting ideas
    • Critically analyse the arguments made
    • Note communication styles
    • Extend reading time while concentration holds, gradually increasing it
  15. (4) What are the features of the reading structure SQ3R?
    Survey - Review text from headings, abstracts, introductions, tables of contents, keywords, subject terms.

    Question - Generate questions about the text.

    Read - While doing so, seek answers to those questions generated above.

    Recite - Rehearse answers to those questions and make notes.

    Review - Check for integrity of answers and seek answers to any lingering questions.
  16. (4) What 3 strategies can be used to ensure effective reading?
    Exercise Awareness - Make use of best environment, stop when concentration wanes.

    Reflect on Affect - How does this contribute to my learning? How can it be used?

    Make Decisions - What helps to fulfil my needs? Read only important sections, but ensure that you read them comprehensively.
  17. Research
  18. What are the 7 stages, in order, of the Research Cycle?
    • 1. Analyse Topic Question
    • 2. Brainstorm the Topic
    • 3. Define Keywords
    • 4. Search
    • 5. Evaluate Information
    • 6. Communicate your Findings
    • 7. Return to Beginning when Necessary
  19. What 4 questions should be repeatedly asked when Searching?
    • What search string should I use?
    • Where should I search?
    • Was my previous search effective?
    • How can I improve upon it?
  20. The keyword tracking sheet (KTS) allows you to answer these questions. What 3 things does the KTS do to aid Searching?
    • Imposes reflection
    • Avoids backtracking
    • Applies direction
    • --->  But allow for 'serendipity' in results
  21. What are 5 sources of information to potentially be used in research? Give Pros and Cons for each.
    Books: Good depth; Scholarly. BUT quickly outdated; Possibly expensive.

    Journals: More up to date; Scholarly. BUT lack of depth due to space constraints; Possibly expensive.

    Magazines: Extremely current; Niche magazines useful; BUT possibility for editorial bias; Superficial.

    Newspapers: Extremely current; Niche papers useful; BUT local focus may lose sight of big picture; Over-politicised.

    Websites: Always current; Most important entities have them; BUT not academic; Often unreliable. 
  22. What 8 questions should you ask when evaluating sources?
    • How useful is it to my research?
    • How reliable is it?
    • What angle is adopted?
    • Who is the author?
    • Who is the publisher?
    • How recently was it published?
    • What is the author's point of view?
    • Why was it published?
  23. Academic
    Writing
  24. What are the 3 underlying skills of academic writing?
    • Typing - especially touch typing
    • Supporting resources - with general materials
    • ICT literacy - skill in commonly-used programmes.
  25. What are 4 common applications of academic writing?
    • Essays
    • Literature Reviews
    • Business Reports
    • Theses
  26. What are the 4 types of essays? How should the word count be structured?
    • Descriptive: Display knowledge
    • Analytical: Apply critical thinking to a proposition
    • Combination: Display & Critique
    • Research: Conduct research and make argument, including the opinions of experts to synthesis own ideas

    • 1. Abstract
    • 2. Introduction (10%)
    • 3. Body (80%)
    • 4. Conclusion (10%)
    • 5. References / Bibiliography
  27. What are the 3 characteristics of an academic essay?
    • They make clear position statements.
    • They defend their positions with logical argumentation.
    • The arguments are supported by evidence.
  28. Editing &
    Referencing
  29. Academic
    Texts & Uses
  30. Advanced Writing, 
    Resarching & Info. Management
  31. Logical Reasoning
    and the Argument
  32. Business
    Reports
  33. What are the 7 differences between an essay and a business report?
    • Purpose: Define problem & recommend a solution
    • Structure: Defined but variable
    • Comm. Style: Short, concise
    • Abstract: Always present (exec. summary)
    • Figures: Always used
    • Writer: Group-based
    • Audience: Specific group, varies
  34. What are the 5 general attributes of a business report?
    • Logical
    • Clear in style & presentation
    • Literate & flowing
    • Predictable, so that info. can be derived easily
    • Accurate & believable
  35. What are the 5 sections of a typical business report?
    • 1. Executive Summary
    • 2. Introduction
    • 3. Findings & Discussion
    • 4. Conclusion
    • 5. Recommendations

    Headings & tables of contents are usually used. Headings provided by brief, ordered according to the brief, and consistently formatted.
  36. What are the features of the Executive summary?
    • Critical; sometimes the only part read
    • Written last
    • Includes why, how, what, major findings, analysis, conclusion and recommendations
  37. What are the features of the Introduction?
    • Orientation statement
    • State purpose
    • Overview
    • Note assumptions, context, scope, methodology and limitations
    • Written penultimately
  38. What are the features of the Findings & Discussion?
    • Factual outline
    • Basis of conclusions and recommendations
    • Analysis of findings
    • Longest section
    • Honest reflection
    • Always recognise deficiencies in methodology
    • Present findings in graphical format
  39. What are the features of the Conclusion?
    • Purpose
    • Process
    • Findings
    • Opinion
    • Issues raised
    • Limitations
  40. What are the features of the Recommendations?
    • What should be done?
    • Who should act?
    • Timeframe for action
    • Actions can be grouped and listed
    • Consistent structure across recommendations
  41. What things should you remember when using figures and statistical representation in business reports?
    • Usage more important than in essays
    • Included mostly in findings to represent data
    • Conventions highly discipline-specific

    • Presentation should be consistent and figures should be numbered. 
    • Structure same as essay - a point per paragraph, with topic sentence. Conform to expectations.
    • Careful task planning
    • Develop conclusion and recommendations last
    • Define sections and build on them - each task plays a different role
    • Support essential - will mostly be found in 'back matter'
  42. Effective
    Presentations
  43. Employability
    & Networking

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