Emotional Behavior & the Brain
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Emotion is a feeling state characterized by:
What are the structures involved with these 3?
physiological arousal, expressive behaviors/responses, and cognitive interpretation.
Limbic system, Autonomic Nervous System, Somatic Nervous System, and the hypothalamus
Emotion can only occur when we are __________. Extreme emotions/No emotion can impair abilities to ________ & ______ _________.
- make decisions
James-Lange theory of emotion (historical perspective):
What are the 3 components?
What is the definition?
What is it based in?
What does it assume?
- Stimulus: Response (physiological): Emotion
- We experience emotion in response to physiological changes in our body (physiology: appraisal)
- ANS: parasympathetic and sympathetic
- If you remove the physiological response, you can prevent emotion
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion (a historical perspective):
What are the 3/4 components?
What is the definition?
What does this theory postulate?
- Stimulus: to thalamus: Emotion + Physiological response
- An event evokes the emotional experience and the physical arousal simultaneously, but independently (appraisal: physiology)
- Emotion originates in the thalamus, physiological changes happen slowly, and emotions happen quickly. These two are independently activated, but simultaneous
Is ANS arousal necessary for emotions?
What are two examples of ANS arousal impairment for emotion?
- Some ANS activation is needed for emotion. For example, cognitive reactions can occur without ANS changes, but subjective experiences decrease without some ANS arousal
- Pure autonomic failure (PAF): male, late adulthood, loss of ANS, weak/mild emotions
- Locked in Syndrome: damage to ventral part of brainstem, loss of connection between the ANS and skeletal muscles, majority feel tranquility
What is the purpose of emotions?
Emotions induce _______
What does the Yerkes-Dodson Law of Arousal state?
- Spring us into actions, make us more reactive, facilitate learning/memory, facilitate performance
- the Yerkes-Dodson Law of Arousal states that low stress yields low performance, medium stress yields productive performance, and high stress yields low performance.
What are the structures associated with emotion: The Limbic System
What are the overall structures?
What are the specific structures?
What are the two most important?
- Structures located on the medial aspects of cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon
- hypothalamus, anterior/medial nuclei of the thalamus, limbic lobe (coagulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus & uncus), hippocampus, amygdala, insula, basal forebrain (septal area, pre optic area, nucleus accumbens, and the basal nucleus of Meynert)
- Cingulate gyrus (cognitive role) and Amygdala (fear & aggression)
Is the limbic system solely responsible for emotions?
Experience and expression of emotions involves _________ _________ in the NS (e.g. _____, ______ ________) Emotional reactions result from interaction between ________ stimuli, _______ _______, past ___________, and _______ systems. Structures associated with emotions also may ______ _______ _________.
- widespread activity
- ANS, cerebral cortex
- Sensory, brain circuitry, experiences
- Have different functions
The Limbic Sytem Interacts with the _______ ______ to facilitate ______ __ ________. We know this because of ______ _______
- Frontal Lobes
- Awareness of Emotion
- Phineas Gage
There is cerebral Asymmetry in emotional processing
What is the left hemisphere responsible for?
- Expression of positive emotion
- damage leads to loss of the capacity of joy
- activation leads to tendencies to approach other people (friendly, outgoing, happier)
- Expression of negative emotion
- damage results in euphoria/mania
- activation leads to tendencies to withdraw from people (socially withdrawn, less satisfaction, unpleasant emotions)
The amygdala is involved in _______ and _______ responses associated with _____ and _________, and also plays a role in _________.
Damage to the amygdala results in a loss of ____ or _______ and trouble in recognizing _______ _______ of _____. For example, _______-_______ disease results in damage to the amygdala
- facial expressions
- Urbach-Wiethe (this results in bilateral atrophy and an accumulation of CA)
What is responsible for aggression?
What is aggression?
What are the types?
What are these types both controlled by?
- No one site is responsible for all aggression
- Behavior that is motivated to cause harm to another living being
- Predatory: purposeful attack (food), this is not associated with high level of SNS
- Affective: for show behavior, associated with high levels in SNS
- Both controlled/mediated by the somatic motor system and ANS, but pathways eventually diverge
The hypothalamus & midbrain
What does the hypothalamus send information to?
What are the two pathways that complete this movement of information?
- brainstem (specifically the midbrain)
- Medial forebrain bundle: movement from the lateral hypothalamus to the ventral segmental area, an increase in these areas elicits predatory aggressive behavior
- Dorsal Longitudinal Fasciculus: Medial hypothalamus to periaqueductal gray matter, an increase in these areas elicits affective aggression
The Amygdala and Aggression
The amygdala has multiple effects on ________ _________ via the ________ and other structures. Electrical stimulation of part of the amygdala may _________ affective and predatory aggression; lesions in these same areas may ________ affective and predatory aggression.
- aggressive behavior
Serotonin and Aggression
Serotonin, in the ______ _______, may be involved in __________ aggression. It is distributed through a ______ _______ system. A decrease in serotonin may ________ aggression. What two things may be a result of a decrease in serotonin?
- raphe nuclei
- diffuse modulatory
- Suicide attempts, histories of violence
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