322_Ch11

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Author:
itzlinds
ID:
246104
Filename:
322_Ch11
Updated:
2013-11-27 12:46:49
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Ankle foot complex
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Description:
ankle and foot complex
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  1. In which plane does eversion occur?

    A. sagittal
    B. transverse
    C. none
    D. frontal
    D. frontal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of the following is not an antagonist of the gastrocnemius?

    A. tibials anterior
    B. tibials posterior
    C. extensor hallcuis longus
    D. extensor digitorum longus
    B. tibials posterior
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. What muscle action is involved in the movement of the ankle joint in the power phase of the standing long jump?

    A. eccentric action of the tibialis anterior
    B. Eccentric action of the gastrocnemius
    C. Concentric action of the gastrocnemius
    D. concentric action of the tibalis anterior
    C. concentric action of the gastrocnemius
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. In performing a deep squat, which of the following is not an active muscle at the ankle?

    A. gastrocnemius
    B. soleus
    C. tibialis anterior
    D. tibialis posterior
    C. tibialis anterior
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following is not a prime mover in ankle dorsiflexion?

    A. flexor digitorum longus
    B. tibials anterior
    C. extensor hallucis longus
    D. extensor digitorum longus
    A. flexor digitorum longus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which muscle is most active at the ankle as a postural muscle?

    A. soleus
    B. peroneus
    C. gastrocnemius
    D. plantaris
    A. soleus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Inversion occurs at the ankle joint.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  8. The extensor digitorum longus extends the toes and helps plantarflex the ankle.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  9. Inversion of the calcaneus occurs with supination of the foot.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  10. In normal, static upright posture, the arches of the feet need muscle force in order to maintain their structure.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  11. does inversion or eversion occur with pronation?
    eversion
  12. does the weight shift medially or laterally during pronation?
    medially
  13. does inversion or eversion occur at the ankle?
    no
  14. what type of motion occurs at the ankle:
    flexion and extension
  15. what segment is moved during open chain motion at the ankle:
    proximal segment; tibia
  16. what are 2 important fxns of the ankle complex:

    what 2 structural designs of the ankle complex allow these fxn to occur:
    fxns:  support, propulsion

    • flexible structure; adaptable
    • pronated position
    • initial contact (heel strike)
    • loading response (foot is flat, complete contact with the ground)

    • rigid weight-bearing structure
    • rigid structure to help propell forward
    • becomes more supinated; more stable position of the foot
    • midstance - weight is over supporting limb
    • preswing

    changes within a single step

    • what allows changes/adapatability?
    • interactions of bones (small bones and many of them), ligaments, & muscles
  17. foot trouble is one of the most common ailments today.

    explain why?

    what can one do to improve the ailment?
    why foot ailments are most common: poor foot mechanics can lead to discomfort (weak muscles; high or low archs; can be built up over time)

    • to improve ailments
    • muscular development (as children)
    • muscle strength
    • proper foot mechanics
  18. list the following...

    # of bones:
    # of joints:
    # of muscles:
    # of ligaments:
    • # of bones: 28
    • # of joints: 34
    • # of muscles: 19 large, many intrinsic (start and end in the foot)
    • # of ligaments: more than 100
  19. list the bones of the rearfoot:

    is the ankle more stable in dorsiflexion or plantarflexion:

    what is unique about the design of the bone that allows for this stable position:
    • rearfoot bones
    • talus
    • calcaneus

    • most stable position: dorsiflexion
    • design of the bone that allows this stable position: anterior section of the talus is wider
  20. what is the basic structure of the foot:

    what is the keystone of this strucutre:

    in a static, upright, posture how is this structure maintained:
    • structure of the foot: elastic arched structure
    • keystone: talus; the "centerpiece of all the archs; force is imposed on this strucutre
    • static, upright, posture maintained by: bones and ligaments; no muscles are needed
  21. list the arches of the foot:

    describe "fallen arches"
    • longitudinal arches
    • medial longitudinal arch (usually low or high arch)
    • lateral longitudinal arch
    • view in sagittal plane
    • heel to metatarsal head ( intrinsic muscles help to maintain the arches

    • transverse arch
    • side to side concavity
    • at anterior tarsal bones & metatarsals
    • best seen in the frontal plane


    • fallen arches
    • lax ligaments
    • navicular position
    • plantar apuronsis.. provides tension
    • inflammed - plantar fascitits
  22. describe the fundamental movement definitions of eversion and inversion of the ankle:

    plane:
    axis:
    • plane: frontal plane
    • axis: anterior - posterior axis

    que: in a posterior view, the position of the inferior portin of the calcaneus
  23. describe the fundamental movement definitions of abduction and adduction:

    plane:
    axis:
    • plane: transverse plane
    • axis: vertical axis

    que: how the talus moves in the transverse plane; talus (toes) toward/away from midline
  24. describe the fundamental movement definitions of dorisflexion and plantarflexion:

    plane:
    axis:
    • plane: sagittal plane
    • axis: medial - lateral axis
  25. list the joints of the ankle/foot complex starting from the most proximal, moving distally:
    • talocural (ankle; most proximal)
    • subtalar (talocalcaneal) & transverse tarsal
    • metatarsophalangeal
    • interphalangeal
  26. osteology (bones this joint includes):
    joint type:
    degrees of freedom:
    dorsiflexion ROM:
    plantarflexion ROM:

    of the talocrural joint
    • osteolgoy: talus, tibia, fibula
    • joint type: hinge joint
    • degress of freedom: 1
    • dorsiflexion ROM: 15-200 
    • plantarflexion ROM: 500

    • explain why it is more beneficial to be seated to gain more dorsiflexion
    • the gastroc crossed both the ankle and knee joint
    • there is passive instability when standing
    • trying to pass the gastroc over both joints during sitting allows for more ROM because the muscle is not as tight
  27. list the ligamentouus reinforcement of the ankle on the medial side:
    • deltoids
    • calcaneotibial
    • anterior talotibial
    • tibionavicular
    • posterior talotibial

    • plantar calcaneonavicular
    • strong ligaments
  28. list the ligamentous reinforcement of the ankle on the lateral side:
    • anterior talofibular
    • calcaneofibular
    • posterior talofibular

    • weaker than medial ligaments
    • more sprains
  29. osteology:
    joint type:
    degress of freedom:
    inversion ROM:
    eversion ROM:

    of the subtalar joint
    • osteology: talus, calcaneus
    • joint type: gliding joint
    • degrees of freedom: 1
    • inversion ROM: 20-300
    • eversion ROM: 5-100

    supination and pronation at the subtalar joint describe the position of the foot as a whole
  30. osteology:
    joint type:
    degress of freedom:
    motions occurin at this joint:

    of the transverse tarsal joint
    • osteology: talus, calcaneus, tarsal bones
    • joint type: gliding joints
    • degrees of freedom: 2

    • motions that occur at transverse tarsal joint
    • inversion/eversion
    • abduction/adduction
    • plantarflexion/dorsiflexion
  31. osteology:
    joint type:
    degress of freedom:
    motions occuring at this joint and ROM:

    of the metatarsophalangeal joint
    • osteology: metatarsal, phalanges (convex,concave)
    • joint type: condyloid joint
    • degress of freedom: 2

    • motions at metatarsophalangeal joint
    • Flexion/Extension
    • -Great toe ROM: 45/700
    • -lesser toes ROM: 40/400
    • minimal abduction/adduction (passive abduction when standing)
  32. joint type:
    degree of freedom:
    motion occuring at this joint and ROM:

    of the interphalangeal joint:
    • joint type: hinge joint
    • degree of freedom: 1

    • motions occuring at the interphalangeal joint
    • Flexion/Extension
    • -PIP joints: 35/00
    • -DIP joints: 60/300

    much vairation within & between subjects
  33. during open chain supination...

    what sagittal plane motion occurs:
    what is the motion of the calcaneus:
    what frontal plane motion occurs:
    what transverse plane motion occurs:
    • sagittal plane: plantarflexion
    • motion of the calcaneus: inversion
    • frontal plane motion: inversion
    • transverse plane: ADDuction
  34. during closed chain supination... (segment is proximal; external rotation of the proximal segment)..

    what motion occurs in the sagittal plane:
    what motion occurs in the frontal plane:
    what motion occurs in the transverse plane:
    • sagittal plane: dorsiflexion
    • frontal plane: inversion
    • transverse plane: ABDuction
  35. during open chain pronation...

    what motion occurs in the sagittal plane:
    what motion occurs in the frontal plane:
    what motion occurs in the transverse plane:
    • sagittal plane: dorisflexion
    • frontal plane: position of the calcaneus moves laterally; eversion
    • transverse plane: ABDuction
  36. during closed chain pronation..

    what motion occurs in the sagittal plane:
    what motion occurs in the frontal plane:
    what motion occurs in the transverse plane:
    • sagittal plane: plantarflexion; big toe is being pushed down
    • frontal plane: eversion
    • transverse plane: ADDuction (the talus)
  37. list the action of the metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJ):

    list the action of the interphalangeal joints (IPJ):
    • metatarsophalangeal joint
    • flexion/Extension
    • limited abduction/adduction

    • interphalangeal joints
    • Flexion/Extension
  38. list the 8 plantarflexors of the foot/ankle complex:
    • gastrocnemius
    • soleus
    • flexor digitorum longus
    • flexor hallucis longus
    • peroneus longus
    • peroneus brevis
    • tibialis posterior
    • plantarsi (very weak PF, basically disregarded)
  39. what is the fxn of the gastrocnemius:
    • plantarflexion
    • powerful
    • more effective when knee extended
    • greater % of fast twitch fibers
    • running, jumping
  40. what are the 2 fxns of the soleus:
    • plantarflexion
    • supination (with gastroc, locks foot into rigid lever during WB)
    • more slow twitch fibers
    • important postural muscle
  41. list the fxn of the flexor digitorum longus:

    list the fxn of the flexor hallucis longus:
    • flexor digitorum longus
    • flexion of the toes
    • PF, helps invert the ankle
    • supports the longitudinal arch

    • flexor hallucis longus
    • flexion of the great toe
    • PF, helps invert ankle
    • supports longitudinal arch
  42. what are the fxns of the peroneus longus:
    • primary pronator of the foot (eversion)
    • PF of the ankle
    • supports the transverse and longitudinal arches
    • PF & pronation helps transfer BW from lateral to medial side of the foot
  43. what are the fxns of the peroneus brevis:
    • with the peroneus longus, primary pronator of the foot (eversion)
    • PF of the ankle
    • helps maintain longitudinal arch
  44. what is the fxn of the tibials posterior:
    • predominantly supinator of the foot (inversion)
    • PF of the ankle
    • important in controlling and reversing pronation of foot during gait
  45. list the 4 dorsiflexors of the ankle/foot complex:
    • tibialis anterior
    • peroneus tertius
    • extensor digitorum longus
    • extensor halluces longus
  46. list the fxn of the tibialis anterior:
    • primary dorsiflexor
    • weak supination (inversion)
  47. list the fxn of the extensor hallucis longus:
    • extension of the great toe
    • dorsiflexion of the ankle
    • weak inversion of the foot

    • both the extensor hallucis longus and the tibialis anterior supinate at heel strike (a period of strong pronation)
    •  
  48. list the fxn of the extensor digitorum longus:
    • extension of the toes
    • weak ankle dorsiflexion
    • eversion of the foot
  49. list the fxn of the peroneus tertius:
    • eversion (primary)
    • weak dorisflexion
  50. list the 4 evertors of the foot/ankle complex:

    where are these muscles located:
    • peroneus longus
    • peroneus brevis
    • peroneus tertius
    • extensor digitorum longus

    located: laterally on foot
  51. list the 4 invertors of the foot/ankle complex:

    where are these muscles located:
    • tibialis anterior
    • tibialis posterior
    • flexor digitorum longus
    • flexor hallucis longus

    located: medially on the foot
  52. list the planes in which each of the following movements occurs. list the axis of rotation for each movement in each plane:

    plantarflexion:
    dorsiflexion:
    • plantarflexion: sagittal
    • dorsiflexion: sagittal
  53. list the planes in which each of the following movements occurs. list the axis of rotation for each movement in each plane:

    inversion:
    eversion:
    • inversion: frontal plane
    • eversion: frontal plane
  54. list the planes in which each of the following movements occurs. list the axis of rotation for each movement in each plane:

    flexion of the toes:
    extension of the toes:
    sagittal plane
  55. how do you stretch the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles:
    • gastrocnemius
    • stand facing a wall, placing both palms on the wall about 3 feet apart, leaning into the wall
    • feet should be pointed straight ahead, heels remain on the floor

    • soleus
    • stretched in the same manner as the gastrocnemius, except the knees must be slightly flexed
  56. how do you strengthen the gastrocnemius and the soleus:
    • gastrocnemius
    • heel raising exercises with the knees in full extension
    • toes resting on a block of wood

    • soleus
    • plantarflexion exercises against resistance
    • heel raising exercises as described for the gastroc, except with the knee slightly flexed

    • exercises
    • standing calf raises
    • one-leg toe raises
    • donkey calf raises
    • seated calf raises
    • seated barbell calf raises
  57. how do you stretch the peroneus longus and the peroneus brevis muscles:
    passively taking the foot into extreme inversion and dorisflexion with the knee flexed
  58. how do you stretch the peroneus tertius and the extensor digitorum longus muscles:
    • peroneus tertius
    • extreme inversion and plantarflexion

    • extensor digitorum longus muscles
    • passivley taking the 4 lesser toes into full flexion whil the foot is inverted and plantarflexed
  59. how do you strengthen the peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, peroneus tertius, and the extensor digitorum longus muscles:
    eversion exercises, such as turning the sole of the foot outward against resistance

    • peroneus tertius
    • pulling the foot up toward the shin against a weight or resistance
    • everting the foot
    • weighted towel drags

    • exercises
    • towel drags
    • elastic band turn outs

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