Airman Leadership School CDC Vol 2

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Airman Leadership School CDC Vol 2
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2013-11-10 12:35:29
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Airman Leadership School CDC Vol ALS Air Force PME
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Airman Leadership School CDC Vol 2
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  1. What is the primary purpose of AFI 36-2618?
    To outline general responsibilities and authority NCOs.
  2. According to AFI 36-2618, into what three tiers is the enlisted structure divided?
    Airman tier, NCO tier, and senior NCO tier.
  3. What responsibilites or roles are enlisted personnel expected to progress through during each tier?
    During the airman tier, the individual progresses from apprentice to apprentice and worker and finally, to journeyman and supervisor. During the NCO tire, the individual is primarily a craftsman and supervisor. The senior NCO tiers transtion the individual from crafsman/supervisor/manager to superintendant and manager.
  4. What are a few suggestions ffor staying qualified in your job?
    Get out the office and out in the field. Keep up to date by reading technical references and stay "in the books."
  5. To understand the principles of leadership and supervisory techniques, what are some examples of ways you can use supervisory techniques effectively.
    Ensure feedback takes place, use EES system properly without inflating your ratings, counsel your subordinates, and reward and punish as necessary.
  6. When are you a role model?
    Both on and off duty.
  7. What are potential consequences of not correcting marginal or substandard behavior or performance?
    Poor morale, safety hazards, a loss of respect for your authority, and continued poor judgment or performance.
  8. Why is PME a major factor in determining NCO promotion and retention?
    Because NCOs learn and improve leadership and management skills through PME.
  9. Though not all inclusive, what are some general NCO responsibilities?
    Completing PME, formal civilian edication, demonstrate exemplary attributes wepected of an NCO both on and off duty, ensure that personnel and resources under their control are used effectively, utilize both supervisory and technical skills, detect adverse morale and initiate corrective action, maintain highest level of communication with subordinates, ensure oeiole are treated fairlym and encourage involvement in unit activities.
  10. Name the responsibilities of a technical sergeant.
    Holds 7-skill level, performs highly complex technical duties, and provides responsible supervision.
  11. Name the responsibilities of a staff sergeant.
    Holds 5-skill level duties that differ from a TSgt only in scope and control.
  12. Why must the NCO set the example of leadership and maintain standards?
    NCOs must set the example and maintain standardsbefore they can, with good conscience, hold anyone accountable.
  13. Besides having the important job of mission accomplishment, what other constructive attributes must the NCO leader develop in subordinates and peers?
    The NCO leader must develop initiative, motivation, and positive attitudes in subordinates and peers.
  14. NCOs must also be managers. Describe what resources must be used in an efficient manner to achieve mission accomplishment.
    The must use manpower, material, money, space and time in an efficient manner, while also ensuring that all valuable resources are conserved in an effective fashion.
  15. Describe the role of the NCO as a trainer and counselor.
    The NCO supervisor is the key element in planning, conducting and evaluating training. The NCO's role as a counselor falls into three categories - performance counseling, career counseling, and personnel counseling.
  16. NCOs have many responsibilities in their subordinates training program. List those responsibilities.
    Those roles include mentors, teachers, record keeps, evaluators and counselors.
  17. What are the objectives of the EES?
    To provide ratees with specific standards of performance and to provide an official record of performance.
  18. How do the procedures for evaluating airmen and NCOs differ?
    The procedures are essentially the same; it is the process used to adjust for the various levels of responisibility among NCOs and airmen that differ.
  19. What in the impact of failing to give performance feedback to subordinates?
    Subordinates may not know their performance needs improvement.
  20. Specifically, what valuable information does the EPR/EEs provide to the ratee?
    It tells the ratee what is expected on the job, how well he or she is performing, and it generates a formal record of that performance, including a promotion recommendation.
  21. Whose responsibility is it to establish and communicate clear standards before observing performance?
    Supervisor.
  22. Who is in the best position to provide feedback to subordinates?
    Immediate supervisor.
  23. During which steps of the EES does a supervisor evaluate performance by weighing an individual's day-to-day performance against established standards?
    Observation.
  24. What is the key to any evaluation process?
    Determinig and evaluating "typical" performance.
  25. What document is a periodic formal evaluation of an enlisted member's performance and also serves as an official record of performance?
    The EPR.
  26. What is the impact of making accurate, fair, and honest evaluations?
    You are ensurence that the most deserving individuals have the best chances for promotion.
  27. How does the Air Force use the EES as an effective management tool?
    The EES allows the Air Force to manage people and select them for positions of increased responsibility where they can best serve the needs of Air Force.
  28. What is the purpose of the performance feedback system?
    A formal system where raters effectively communicate responsibilities, duty performance, and expectations to their subordinates.
  29. When is performance feedback conducted?
    Initial feedback is completed within 60 days of the rater being assigned, mid-period feedback is completed midway between the date supervision began and EPR close out date, and a follow-up feedback is given within 60 days after the closeout date of the EPR.
  30. Which form does a rater use to conduct performance feedback on ratees in the grades of airmen basic through technocal sergeant?
    AF Form 931
  31. What are some of the benefits of using performance feedback?
    It can provide a sense of direction and help develop motivation in ratees.
  32. Who is in the best position to provide feedback to subordinates?
    Immediate supervisor.
  33. During which steps of the EES does a supervisor evaluate performance by weighing an individual's day-to-day performance against established standards?
    Observation.
  34. What is the key to any evaluation process?
    Determinig and evaluating "typical" performance.
  35. What document is a periodic formal evaluation of an enlisted member's performance and also serves as an official record of performance?
    The EPR.
  36. What is the impact of making accurate, fair, and honest evaluations?
    You are ensurence that the most deserving individuals have the best chances for promotion.
  37. How does the Air Force use the EES as an effective management tool?
    The EES allows the Air Force to manage people and select them for positions of increased responsibility where they can best serve the needs of Air Force.
  38. What is the purpose of the performance feedback system?
    A formal system where raters effectively communicate responsibilities, duty performance, and expectations to their subordinates.
  39. When is performance feedback conducted?
    Initial feedback is completed within 60 days of the rater being assigned, mid-period feedback is completed midway between the date supervision began and EPR close out date, and a follow-up feedback is given within 60 days after the closeout date of the EPR.
  40. Which form does a rater use to conduct performance feedback on ratees in the grades in the grades of airmen basic through technical sergeant?
    AF Form 931.
  41. What are some of the benefits of using performance feedback?
    It can provide a sense of direction and help develop motivation in ratees.
  42. As a supervisor, when formulating your expectations of the ratee, what three questions should you ask yourself?
    Are my expectations realistic, attainable, and compatible with Air Force Instructions.
  43. What is the purpose of the mid-course performance feedback?
    Provide the ratee a performance progress report and the opportunity to improve that performance if necassary.
  44. Under what circumstances would you not perform a follow-up performance feedback?
    When the last EPR was prepared as a result of a change in rater.
  45. What are some important things the rater must consider when scheduled the time and place of a feedback session?
    That the session is scheduled far enough in advance so both the rater and ratee have enough time to be adequely prepared for the feedback session.
  46. What must the rater do before giving the feedback form to the ratee?
    Sign and date the PFW the day of the session.
  47. Who should develop a plan to achieve success during the feedback swssion?
    Rater.
  48. What is the most important thing to do when closing the feedback session?
    Schedule the next performance feedback session.
  49. What are the requirements of the rater in the final step of the EES process?
    Prepares comments, documents duty performance and makes a promotion recommendation.
  50. Why must the rater let the ratee know there are certain areas of his or her performance requiring improvement?
    It will help increase the productivity of the ratee and ensure the rater's credibility as a supervisor.
  51. How does the Air Force benefit from supervisors making honest and accurate promotion recommendations?
    The right people get prompted and personnel decisions are made easier.
  52. Why is it important to describe the level and impact of performance in the comments section of the EPR?
    It provides material necessary to the support ratings in the EPR.
  53. Who is responsible for knowing when a ratee's EPRs is due and when it must be submitted?
    Supervisor/reporting official.
  54. Why are there only two evaluators for AB through TSgt?
    To keep endorsement levels at the lowest possible level and reduce administrative burden.
  55. Which section of the EPR contains the duty title and duty description of the ratee?
    Section II.
  56. What term is used to refer to an evaluator's non-concurrence with a rating on an EPR?
    Disagreement
  57. What must the evaluator consider when making a promotion recommendation in section IV of the EPR?
    The ratee's performance and promotion potential compared with others in the same grade and AFSC.
  58. Who must be the indorsing official on the AF Form 910.
    The rater's rater, provided minimum grade requirements are met.
  59. What would cause an EPR to become a referral report?
    When it contains one or more ratings in the far left block of any performance factor or a promotion recommendation of "1".
  60. What is individual behavior?
    Every aspect of a person's functioning that is a result of that person's motives, values, and personality.
  61. What are the five basic motives that make up individual behavior?
    Physiological motives, safty motives, social motives, and self-esteem motives, and self-actualization motives.
  62. What are values?
    Values are our beliefs about what constitutes worthwhile or not worthwhile goals and methods of reaching goals.
  63. Where do our values tend to come from?
    Parents, peers, and self.
  64. What is a difference between values and personality?
    Our values tend to come from feelings we have inside. Our personality tends to be formed from patterns, habits, or conditioned responses tro various stimuli.
  65. What is a group?
    A group is a number of persons or things classified together because of common characteristics or a community of interest, assembled together or having some unifying relationship.
  66. What is the definition of "dynamics"?
    The various forcesm such as physical, moral, and economic, that operate in any field.
  67. Define group dynamics.
    Group dynamics is an ongoing process involving the interaction of individuals formed to achieve an objective, where forces derived from individual needs or goals affect the interpersonal relationships between individuals.
  68. What are motives?
    Motives are the needs, wants, drives, or impulses from within an individual that directs the person toward some goal which may be considered conscious or unconscious.
  69. What are some examples of motives?
    Wanting to belong to a group, the desire to be safe from harm, the desire to reach full potential, and the need for food or water.
  70. What is a goal?
    A goal can be something that will satisfy a motive, some end resulting from behavior that is driven by a need, or something that will satisfy your need.
  71. List two examples of a goal.
    Attaining a degree, a promotion leading to more responsibility, or winning an award for Airman or NCO of the Quater.
  72. Human behavior revolves around motives according ro Maslow's Hierarchy. List these motives with an example of each motive.
    Physiological motive - a person who becomes distracted until he or she cannot do the job because of hunger; security motive - a person who always volunteers for overtime because of wanting to get ahead; social motive - a person who plays intramural sports, not because of enjoying but for the company of other players; recognition motive - a person who does special tasks only when there's something in it for him or her' and self-actualization motive - a person who finds a way of practicing a talent or skill off-duty to be the best he or she can be.
  73. What are values?
    Values are beliefs about what does or does not constitute a worthwhile goal. It also can be a belief about acceptable or unacceptable methods of reaching goals.
  74. When are values formed?
    Values are formed whenever we accept an idea, perceive a relationship, or take a principle for granted.
  75. What is the difference between values and opinions?
    Opinions are altered through education, awareness, peerpressure, etc. Generally values will not change unless some strong, life-changing, or significant personal event occurs.
  76. Define personality.
    Personality is described as how a person consistently behaves and reacts to people and the environment.
  77. What type of behavior might a predominately analytical personality exhibit?
    A person with an analytical personality would display characteristics of being slow and meticulous in decision making to be sure they have all the facts and have analyzed all the possibilities, as well as being a person who uses checklists to ensure they have not forgotten anything.
  78. What type of behaviors might be exhibited by a person who is considered to have a compassionate personality?
    A person with a compassionate personality might display characteristics of someone who always takes the time to consider other s' feeling ad points of view and takes time out from work to help others with their work when the others appear to be struggling.
  79. Define group dynamics.
    The difference one person's behavior can have on other individuals within the group.
  80. What three characteristics impact group dynamics?
    Motives, values, personality.
  81. How do motives impact group effectiveness?
    Your motives are goal-directed. If individuals have different goals (motives) the effectiveness of a group could be impacted in ever a positive or nedative way.
  82. How could values impact group dynamics?
    If individuals have differing values it is sometimes difficult to come to an agreement about how to solve an issue, how to achieve a goal, or to even agree on what the goal should be. If individuals have very similar values the group may work very well together.
  83. What is conflict?
    A process in which one or both sides consciously interfere in the goal achievement efforts of the other.
  84. What are four common causes of conflict amonf individuals in a group?
    Different motives, misunderstanding circumstances, conflicting priorites, and unrealistic goals.
  85. When is conflict within a group a good thing?
    Conflict can be a a positiver when it comes to group problem solving. As individuals seek to impress their opinions and views on the group, the rest of the group must interpret these views. This sharing of information can lead to more effective analysis of problems. Thoughts and ideas can be combined to provide stronger solutions.
  86. What is conflict resolution?
    An attempt to minimize or alleviate disputes between people.
  87. What are some ways to resolve conflict?
    Through avoidance, accommodation, compromise, force, collaboration, or consensus.
  88. What is avoidance?
    A passive approach of dealing with conflict; rather than dealing with the situation, a person avoids the conflict all together.
  89. When would avoidance be an appropriate approach to resolving conflict?
    When the issue is trivial, there is no chance of satisfying your own concern, others can solve the conflict more effectively, and the damage of confronting outweighs the benefits of resolution.
  90. What is accommodation?
    Accommodation is to provide service or give in to another's will while sacrificing your own needs for the sake of others.
  91. When accommodation be an appropriate approach to resolving conflict?
    Accommodation is appropriate when the issue is more important to others than it is to you, you realize you are wrong, you want to build up social credits for later issues, or continues competition would only damage the cause.
  92. What is compromise?
    Compromise is working towards partially satisfying all parties involved by attempting to establish some "middle ground." This occurs when both parties gain and lose something to come to an agreement.
  93. Keeping in mind the difference between accommodation and compromise, when is compromise an appropriate appropriate approach to resolving conflict?
    Compromise is appropriate when goals are moderately important, but not worth effort or disruption, it is necessary to arrive at solutions under time pressure, or you want to achhieve temporary settlement to a complex issue.
  94. What is forcing?
    Forcing occurs when one or both sides use power, threars, or formal authority to satisfy needs, regardless of the impact or feelings of other group members.
  95. When is forcing an appropriate approach to resolving conflict?
    It may be necessary to use force when quick, decisive action is needed, unpopular actions are required, or issues are vital for mission accomplishment.
  96. What is collaboration?
    Collaboration is an attempt, by all sides, to satisfy all parties involved through honest discussion of differences. With collaboration, both sides can be winners. This approach assumes both parties have legitime goals and that creative thinking can transform conflict into an opportunity for all to achieve their goals.
  97. When is collaboration an appropriate approach to resolving conflict?
    Collaboration is appropriate when both sets of concerns are too important to compromise, commitment is necessary, or hard feelings that need to be dealt with dave been interfering with interpersonal realtionships.
  98. What is consensus?
    Cosinsus is agreeing with others in a group, a win/win way of reaching closure on an issue, and a situation where all parties discuss an issue until the group arrives at a decision.
  99. Why is a consensis so valuable?
    Because decisions made via consensus get more support than other methods of decision making. There would be a greater buy-in to the decision, an increased chance of team commitment to the decision, and stronger support if the decision by team members because of having had a personal stake in the decision making.
  100. List helpful hints to keep in mind when trying to reach a group consensus.
    Avoid arguing for your own individual judgment. Approach the task on the basis of logic and avoid changing your mind only to reach agreement. Support only decisions with which you are able to agree, even if only moderately, and view differences of opion as helpful rather than as a hindrance in making decisions.
  101. Who feels the effects of group conflict?
    The individual is affected and so is the group's performance ability.
  102. List 3 possible effects of group conflict.
    Frustration, greater cooperation, or decisions may be forced or based on emotions.
  103. How would conflict likely affect group dynamics?
    Individuals might lose sight of group goals while trying to satisfy their own goals, commitment to group goals would decrease, or commitment to goals would ingrease because of a sense of shared commitment and understanding.
  104. What is a team?
    A group of persons associated together in work or activity, each having a clearly defined role, working towards a specific goal or objective over a specific period of time.
  105. What is the difference between a team and a group?
    The synergy of a team is usually greater than the synergy found in a group; teams have a clearly defined objective as opposed to groups, which often have just similar interests or likes; a team's existence is mormally defined by a predetermined period of time, whereas groups often exist indefinitely; membership is based on skills or skills or experience rather than motives.
  106. What is the purpose of a Tiger Team?
    Normally formed by senior management to solve an urgent specific problem.
  107. What is a PAT?
    Process Action Teams can br formed at any organizational level to analyze and improve a targeted process.
  108. What is a development Team?
    A team in which members are not necessarily experts in the area, but are tasked to design new processes.
  109. How is a Natural Working Group different from the Tiger Team, PAT, or Development Team?
    The process to be improved is owned and operated by the members of the group.
  110. What are the needs of a team?
    Task needs deal with what it takes to het the job done (proposing tasks or goals, establishing procedures and identifying standards, determining specific roles and responsibilities, estabkishing a clairity of purpose, and providing relevant information).
  111. Much of the interaction present within a team is caused by which need of a team?
    Individuual needs.
  112. What are maintenance needs?
    Behaviors necessary to strengthen and maintain the team.
  113. What are the four stages of team development?
    Forming, storming, norming, and performing.
  114. What are some of the feelings associated with the forming stage?
    Anxiety and fear of the challenges to come; an initial, tentative attachment to the team; and excitement anticipation, and pride in being part of the team.
  115. What behaviors would you expect to see during the forming stage?
    Team members asking a lot of questions, expressing doubts about their ability to meet the challenges, trying to get to know other members, expressing anxiousness to get on with it, and perhaps continuously expressing excitement about being a team member.
  116. What needs will a team have during the forming stage?
    Individual needs (mant needs expressed), maintenance needs (somewhat shown due to the newness of the team), and task needs (very little because of the infancy stage of team development).
  117. What are a few issues that must be addressed during the forming stage?
    Members of the team need to get to know each other, the task at hand needs to be defined, and the team has to decide how the task will be accomplished. The team must also decide how to deal any problems that may arise, a leader must be decided on if not formally selected, and the team will need to establish team members' roles, such as recorder, timekeeper, and so on.
  118. What are some of the feelings associated with the storming stage?
    Anxiety, doubt, and frustration.
  119. Based on the feelings commonly associated with the storming stage, what behaviors would you expect to see during this stage?
    At this point, team members may realize the task ahead is more complicated than they originally perceived; members may start to quwstion leadership; some individuals may resist collaborating with the team and try to over zealously assert their own knowledge and opinions; and some team members may become impatient because of the lack of progress.
  120. With rough behaviors becoming evident, what might be a few important mantenence functions that must be addressed during the storming stage?
    Each team member must decide how much influence they will have on the team and on who they will allow to influence them.
  121. What benefits can a team gain from working through the storming stage?
    With clearly define roles and responsibilities, team members begin to understand one another. This helps eliminats hidden agendas which may surface later. It is best to get all your cards on the table right up front in order to keep progress from being disrupted later.
  122. What are some signs that might indicate a team has reached the norming stage?
    The team starts to make progress towards its goal and accomplish something; compromise takes place; members begin to accept each other with their strengths, and weaknesses; an air of cooperationm teamwork and group cohesion becomes evident; functional relationships are developed among members; there is recognition of others' contributions; and there is an establishment of team and individual norms.
  123. How does a team operate in the performing stage?
    Team members work together in constructive ways, offer assistance to others, and recognize the skills of others. At this stage the majority of the team's rfforts are directed towards task completion, decision making is effective, there is mazimum utilization of team member skills, and problem-solving efforts usuallt result in creative, effective solution.
  124. Once a team has reached the performing stage, is the team development work complete?
    No; teams can slip back to any one of the previous stages for ant number of reasons at any time.
  125. What are some reasons a team might move from the performing stage back to one of the earlier stages of team development?
    The team may go back to the norming stage whem a new member is added to the team; ifa new task is assigned, a team might slip back to the storming stage.
  126. How do group dynamics affect the team during the forming stage?
    In the forming stage, if persons know each other and are warm and friendly, the forming may happen quickly. If persons are strangers, the forming may be a long process.
  127. How do group dynamics impact the storming stage of team development?
    If the group consists of persons that are strong-willed, the storming stage will probably be more difficult to get through than it would be if the group consisted of more passive, agreeable type persons.
  128. How do group dynamics impact the norming stage of team development?
    The norming stage is driven by what happened in the forming and storming two stages. Ig the persons involved received a clear understanding of each other in the earlier stages and feelings and emotions were honestly dealt with, the norming stage will move smoothly toward performing. If not, the group may go back to storming at the first emcounter of difficulty in order to settle unresolved issues.
  129. How do group dynamics impact the performing stage of team development?
    The smoothness of the performing stage will depend on how well the different forces (attitudes, personalities, etc.) involved have fit together up to this point. If team members feel they are being used properly and have a good feeling about themselves and being a part of the team, the performing stage will performance will also be strained.
  130. What does the process owner do for the team?
    The process owner selects the team leader as well as the team members, supports the team and its efforts toward completing its goal, and selects an advisor or facilitator for the team. The process owner is responsible for implementation and follow-up on proposed recommendations, nd approval or diapproval of the finished project. The process owner may request the recommendation be modified.
  131. What are the responsiblities of the team leader?
    The team leader is the person who manages the team, gives direction and guidence, resolves internal group problems, encounters participation, and keeps the process owner up to date; is experienced in promoting team building, fulfiling administrative responsibilities, and providing logistics support for the team.
  132. What might the consequences of a leader being under directive or over dirctive?
    With an under directive leader a lack of direction will cause team members to flounder, become frustrated and give up, and the leader focuses on the content of team member. If the team leader is over directive the team may become so dependaent on the direction of the leader that they never learn to function on its own and team mebers may respond with anger if they feel the direction is not needed.
  133. What is the purpose of a facilitator?
    Functions the team's energy toward meeting its goals;
  134. What does a facilitator do?
    Focuses the team's energy toward meeting its goals;
  135. What are some characteristics of an effective team member?
    Effective team members posses characteristics such as the ability to think creatively, a willingness to contribute to group efforts, an ability to put the good of the team ahead of personal goals, a willingness to compromise when needed, the ability to adhere to group norms, and the avility to accept others for who they are not criticize them for who they are not. Team members should be functional experts in their area.
  136. What is the team member responsible for?
    Providing accurate information, working toward building an environment where members work together in harmony, and being both assertive and creative.
  137. Why is it so important that every team member understands his or her role?
    So the team can effectively accomplish its mission.
  138. What is the first step in our six step problem-solving model?
    Step 1. Recognize the problem.
  139. List at least three elements of a problem.
    An individual, an obstacle, and a goal.
  140. How can you be sure you have correctly identified the problem and not the symptoms?
    By first identifying the three elements of a problem (the individual, the obstacle, and the goal).
  141. What is Step 2?
    Gather data.
  142. What are the three types of data refered to in Step 2? Briefly describe each.
    Facts, assumptions, and standards.
  143. What is Step 3?
    List possible solutions.
  144. How do you generate possible solutions?
    Creative thinking and brainstorming.
  145. Where are three sources from which you can draw a possible solution to a problem?
    Your experiences, your ability to think logically, and your ability to think creatively.
  146. What are some principle barriers to creativity you must overcome?
    Habit, fear, inertia, predjudice.
  147. What are four rules you should follow when brainstorming possible solutions to a problem?
    Without judgment, encourage freewheeling ideas, aim for quantity, not quality. hitchike ("piggyback") ideas.
  148. What is Step 4 within the systematic prolem-solving approach.
    Step 4. Test possible solutions.
  149. How can we test our possible solutions?
    Once we have a lot of lolutions available, we must then test them by anticipating the consequences of each solution. We do that by applying our criteria and standards to each possible solution.
  150. What three criteria should be use for selecting the best possible solution?
    Feasibility, suitability, acceptability.
  151. What are you looking for under the criteria of feasibility?
    Are the resources needed to implement the solution available or will you be able to get them in time? If so, it's probably feasible.
  152. What are you looking for under the criteria of suitability?
    Will the solution solve the problem? The solution must not only allow the individual to reach the goal, but us must also meet the standards you development in Step 2.
  153. What are you looking for under the criteria of acceptability?
    This is where the costs involved to implement the solution are weighed. An important aspect of this evaluation is that the solution must not violate any Air Force standard.
  154. What is Step 5?
    Select the best solution
  155. What happens during Step 5 - select the best solution?
    If there is more than one solution remaining when you've finished with Step 4, you must select the best one. To assist you, consider these options: (a) combine solutions to make a best solution. But if you do that, you must retest the solution; (b) select an alternate solution. If the primary solution fails, having an alternate will save time; (c) consider how much each remaining solution will affect the mission, other agencies, or people. If it makes an impact, be sure proper coordination is met; (d) when selecting a solution, be careful of crippling attitudes.
  156. What is meant by "crippling attitudes"?
    One crippling attitude is choosing the solution your boss wants. The other crippling attitude deals with selecting a solution just because it's always been done that way.
  157. What is Step 6?
    Implement and follow up.
  158. What happens during Step 6?
    You implement or put into action the solution you picked in Step 5. You must observe and follow up to ensure your solution to the problem is on track. If the obstacle is removed and the goal attained, your problem is solved. If not, your problem is still with you and needs more attention. You may need to go back to an earlier step in the problem-solving process to gather more data, come up with more possible solutions, ect.
  159. Why is it impoortant to follow a systematic approach to problem solving?
    By the following the six steps it helps to ensure you don't overlook anything or make incorrect assumptions. It allows you, the supervisor, to review possible solutions and choose the best solution for whatever your problem may be.
  160. Define the principles of organizing in a bureaucracy.
    Bureaucracy is a rational, systematic, and precise form of organization in which rules, regulations, and techniques of control are precisely defined.
  161. What is organizational structure of the Air Force designed to do?
    To exploit aerospace power, versatility and flexibility to ensure that aerospace forces remain responsive, survivable, and sustainable.
  162. Define decentralization.
    Decentralization is the extent to which authority is passed down to lower levels in an organization.
  163. What cultrual element of the Air Force will enable the Air Force to evolve from an air force to an air and space force on its path toward space.
    Innovation
  164. As a leader, what can result from your treating people with dignity and fairness?
    Retention and recruitment.
  165. What is the definition of leadership as it applies to you as a leader in the Air Force?
    Leadership is "the art of influencing and directing people to accomplish the mission.
  166. To become an effective leader, what two fundamental concepts must you always consider?
    The mission and the people.
  167. Define followership.
    The capacity to follow a leader or one in the service of another; one that follows the opinions or teachings of another; one that imitates another. Also the willigness to serve and accept the authority of another.
  168. List the key attributes of followership.
    Willingness, service, and acceptance of authority.
  169. What are the sources of a leaders postional influence?
    Duty title, rank, and job.
  170. What is an example of a leader appropriately using his or her influence?
    Acknowledges a job well done with verbal praise, an LOA or a medal.
  171. Name one way to increase the amount of influence you have as a follower.
    Know yourself and your supervisor.
  172. Explain how the effective use of followership traits promotes mission accomplishment.
    The effective use of followership traits promotes mission accomplishment because it ensures greater cooperation between boss and subordinate.
  173. Describe the relationship between leadership and follwership?
    Leaders and followers are deependent upon one another.
  174. Which leadership style, according to the leadership continuum, provides most of the authority to group members instead of the leader?
    Free-reign
  175. What type of supervision delegates responsibility to followers and empowers them to perform tasks?
    Y manager
  176. Describe Situational Leadership.
    The leader's behavior must be based on a diagnosis of the development level of subordinates and other situational factors in existence.
  177. List and define five management skills that an effective supervisior can use to get the job done.
    The five skills are listed below.
  178. What management skill should be regarded as a supplement to job competence and the other basic skills?
    Political skills.
  179. What management skill involves an understanding of and a proficiency in a specific activity that involves methods, processes, procedures, and techniques?
    Technical skill
  180. Based on your readings, what term is normally associated with a leader?
    Passionate
  181. What follower behavior best illustrates a combination of confidence and motivation?
    Commitment
  182. Name the skills combination upon which a follower's development level is based.
    Competence and commitment
  183. List and define the four leadership behaviors effective supervisors use in follower development.
    Instructing, Coaching, Supporting, Delegating.
  184. In what style of leadership are problem solving and decision making done solely by the supervisor?
    Instructing
  185. In what style of leadership are followers given the responsibility to carry out decisions both the supervisor and follower have agreed on.
    Delegating
  186. What is the primary behavior of the supervisors when they are using the supporting or delegating styles of leadership?
    Supportive
  187. Which situational variable requires constant observation and is often very structure in an effort to ensure mission accomplishment?
    Job demands
  188. Airmen Smith has beem assigned to your section directly from basic training. He has no knowledge (low competence) of his assigned tasks, but is eager to learn (high commitment). Which leadership style is appropriate to use at this level of Airmen Smiths' development.
    Instructing.
  189. What is the Air Force policy on Military Equal Opportunity?
    The Air Force will conduct is affairs free from unlawful discrimination and sexual harassment. It provides equal opportunity and treatment for all members irrespective of their race, color, religion, national orgin, sex, age, or, in the case of civilian employees, handicapping conditions, except as prescribed by statute or policy.
  190. Name two forms of unlawful discrimination and define their use?
    Individual discrimination occurs when an action is taken by an individual to deprive a person or group of a right because of color, race, sex, ect. This can occur openly, covertly, intentionally, or unintentionally. Organizational discrimination ,ay be an action by an institution, through its politics and procedures, deprivingg a person or group of a right because of sex, race, color, etc. This can occur openly, covertly, intentionally, or unintentionally.
  191. What is the Air Force definition of sexual harassment?
    A form of sex discriminition that involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or pysical conduct of a sexual nature when submission of such conduct is made either explicity or implicitly s term or condition of a person's job, pay, or career.
  192. What is Air Force policy on sexual harassment?
    There is no tolerance for unlawful discrimination or harassment of any sort within the Air Force.
  193. What AFI discusses dissident and protest activities?
    AFI 51-903
  194. Air Force members who engage in the effort to deprive individuals of their civil rights are punishable under which article of the UCMJ?
    Artical 92
  195. What can you do to help prevent Military Equal Opportunity (MEO) problems?
    Establish the proper atmosphere in your duty section; establish clear policies; support and attend special observances and allow your subordinates to do the same; help sensitize subordinates to MEWO issues and problems that can occur; communicate and let the people working for you know the policies and standards; refer problems up the chain of command or to social actions.
  196. What is the supervisor's role in Military Equal Opportunity?
    The supervisor's role in Military Equal Opportunity activites which impact the professional environment includes preventing Military Equal Opportunity problems, identifying Military Equal Opportunity problems, and correcting those problems identified.
  197. What are some measures a supervisor can take to correct inappropriate Military Equal Opportunity problems?
    If you observe or are approached about discrimination or sexual harasment, take action. If the offended person civilian, advise the person of the right to seek help through the EEO process. Advise the offensive person to stop immeditely. If the offender is your supervisor, report it to the next level or encourage the recipient to do the same. Act promptly and take action if you supervise the offending individual. Warn all parties immediately against behavior, which may look like direct or indirect reprisal. Inform the chain of command.
  198. Define Substance Abuse.
    The use of any illicit drug or the misuse of any prescribed medication or the abuse of alcohol. Abuse refers to any pattern of unconventional misuse of any substance for non-medical purposes that produces a known health risk or constitutes a danger to self, or others.
  199. Define Alcohol Abuse.
    Any substance behavior or performance in which the consumption of alcohol is a primary contributing factor. This definintion should not be confused with the diagnosis of Alcohol Abuse as outlined in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM).
  200. Define Drug Abuse.
    The illegal, wrongful, or improper use, possession, sale, transfer, or introduction onto a military installation of any drug defined in this (AFI 44-121) instruction. The Air Force does not tolerate the illegal or improper use of drugs by Air Force personnel.
  201. How does Substance Abuse impact the individual?
    Legal problems, marital problems, health problems, poor job performance, and accidents. Substance abuse can cause problems in worker productivity by lowering the quality of work, by a lack of productivity, and by causing conflicts with other workers.
  202. How does Substance Abuse impact the unit?
    Impact on the unit is seen by a decrease in morale/discipline. It degrades unit productivity. It could possibly increase safety hazards or impair the unit mission. You have head horror stories about drug busts and how substance abuse can affect (money, manpower, equipment, time)
  203. What are the objectives of the ADAPT program?
    The objectives are: 1) Promote readiness and health ane wellness through the prevention and treatment of SA.2) Minimize the negative consequences of SA on the individual and family members.3) Provide comprehensive education and treatment to individuals who experience problems attributed to SA..4) Return identified substance abusers to unrestricted duty status or to assist them in their transition to civilian life.
  204. What is the supervisor's role in preventing substance abuse?
    Help your subordinates adjust to the environment and observing, counseling, and correcting subordinates on substandard duty performance.
  205. What are some actions that you can take once you suspect substance abuse?
    Document the behaviors. Confront the individual and discuss the observed behaviors. Counseling will help you and the subordinate understand and deal with the problem. It will also help clarify the reasons for unacceptable performacne/behavior.
  206. What is the primary responsibility of the supervisor during subordinate rehabilitation?
    The primary responsibilities of the supervisor during subordinate rehabilitation are to monitor the progress of the individual, help reduce the stigma associated with substance abuse, and coordinate all efforts with the Life Skills office.
  207. What are some questions a supervisor can ask himself or herself when establishing standards?
    Do I have authority to establish this standard? Does the standard address quantity, quality, and timeliness? Can the individual meet the standard? Is the standard measuable?
  208. Name some sources from which supervisors get standards of conduct.
    AFI 36-2909, Professional Relationships; DODD 5500-7, Standars of Conduct; AFI 36-3010, Member Martial Status and Activities; AFI 40-502. Air Force Weight Program; AFI 36-2906, Financial Responsibility; AFI 36-2908, Family Care Plans; United States Air Force Core Values Handbook (aka The Little Blue Book).
  209. What is the supervisor's main role in maintaining standards through disipline?
    To help develop subordinate self-control to do what is right all the time - every time and which in turn will give you a means to measure progress and correct violations if required.
  210. What two methods of discipline are placed at the supervisor's disposal to ensure proper discipline and standards?
    Two methods of disipline - prevention and correction.
  211. According to AFI 36-2618, The Enlisted Force Structure, what are some supervisory responsibilities in maintaining discipline?
    NCO's carry out orders of those appointed over them by virtue of the authority vested in their rank. This is done by effectively employing personnel, material, equipment, and other resourced under their cotrol. They represent the Air Force NCO Corps to all whom they come in contact. Personal integrity, loyalty, leadership, dedication, and devotion to duty must remain above reproach. As an Air Force leader, manager, and supervisior, the NCO must uphold Air Force policies, traditions, and standards. The NCO should, by word and example, epitomize the Air Force policies, traditions, and standards. The NCO should, by word and example, epitomize the Air Force as a profession and a way of life foe the military and civilian communities. Observe, counsel, and correct individuals on both on and off duty behavior, job performance, professional relationships, and personal appearance.
  212. What measure can a supervisor use to maintain good discipine?
    Prevention, corrective, and punitive measure.
  213. What two ways can a supervisor accomplish corrective counseling?
    Verbal and written.
  214. What is non-judicial punishment and who is authorized to impose it?
    Non-judicial punishmentpunishment (taking action under Article 15 of the UCMH) is one of the commander's most valuable tools for maintaining morale, discipline, and efficiency. It provides commanders with essential and prompt means of maintaining good order and discipline. All commanders have the authority to impose non-judicial punishment for minor offenses on members of thei command. When diciding whether an offense is "minor," the commander should consider factors such as the nature of the offense, the circumstances, the offender's age/rank/record, and the maximum sentnece that would be imposed if the case were tried by count-martial. An Article 15 is not punishment but corrective in nature. Commanders assess a situation, hather the facts, consult with legal, and then, if necessary, offer an Article 15. While non-judicial punidhment is technically punitive, it is corrective or rehabilitative in nature because it promotes positive behavior changes in service members without the stigma of a court-martial conviction.
  215. What are the five types of DCA's?
    Counseling, admonition, reprimand, unfavorable information file, and control roster.
  216. What type of information can be place in an Unfavorable Information File?
    Mandatoryitems such as records of non-judicial punishment when there is any period of suspension or when the punishment period is in excess of one month; a record of conviction by a civilian court or an action equivalent to a finding of guilty of an offense which resulted in, or could have resulted in, a penalty of confinement for more then one year, or death; records of court-martial convictions; control roster actions.
  217. When requirement for a record or letter of counseling or letter of admonishment or reprimand has been established, what items should be included?
    What the member did or failed to do, citing specific incidents and their dates.
  218. What steps need to be accomplished if the service member refuses to sign a letter of admonishment or reprimand?
    Annotate the letter "member refused to acknoledge," sign, and date. To ensure there is no problem in this regard, LOA/LOR should be served in the presence of a witness. If the member refuses to sign the document the witness should sign the document in addition to whoever serves LOA/LOR.
  219. The authority to establish UIF's and control rosters rests solely with whom?
    The commander
  220. Who has access to a UIF?
    The member
  221. Define the Air Force policy on professional relationships.
    Professional relationships are those that contribute to the effective operation of the Air Force.
  222. How do unprofessional relationships affect the work environment?
    Unprofessional relationships negatively impact morale and discipline.
  223. Which member in the personal relationship bears the primary responsibility for maintaining the profesionalism of that relationship?
    The senior member.
  224. How can supervisors best balance supervisor/subordinate relationships?
    To balance supervisor/subordinate relationships, don't let friendship outweigh responsibility to mission.
  225. What is mentorship?
    Mentoring is a relationship in which a person of greater experience and wisdom helps guide the professional development of a more junior person. The goal of mentoring is to help people reach their full potential. The primary responsibility for mentoring rests with each rater or supervisor; however, others may also serve as mentors.
  226. Name some qualities of a good mentor that suppots subordinate development.
    Sociability, dominance, openness, communicator, and counselor.
  227. What is stress?
    Stess is tension - the kind you feel when faced with a new, unpleasant, or threatening situation.
  228. What are some symptoms or signs of stress?
    Some of the psychological signs of stress are confusion, depression, and mood changes. There are also some physical signs of stress as well such as abnormal eating habits, pounding heart, or an inability to slow down or relax. Additional signs of stress include nervousness, dizziness, or troubled breathing. One of the most serious signs of stress is threat of suicide.
  229. Give some examples of positive and negative stress.
    Examples of positive include testing for promotion; the birth of a child; a move to a better apartment; changing to a better daycare center. Examples of negative stress include a death of a close family member and you're having a tough time getting over it; being stationed at a base you do not like and not being able to leave or change jobs; having a special needs child and realizing this is a continuing issue you never planned for; after returning from a bad TDY you find your spouce wants to leave you and you're still in love with him or her.
  230. What are three areas in which the supervisor has a role in stress management?
    Education, assistance and counseling, and referral.
  231. What supervisory role in stress management allows the supervisor to intervene prior to a discipline problem?
    Assistance and counseling.
  232. What is time management?
    Management expects give various meanings for time management, usually focusing on the idea that time management is self-management - using time wisely and effectively, setting clear priorities, and making sure you achieve them.
  233. What are the critical attributtes of time management?
    Goals and objectives.
  234. Work assignments that are highly time-sensitive but required for goal accomplishment should be placed in which time management prioritization category?
    Important.
  235. Describe how effective time management relates to mission accomplishment.
    Getting the mission done efficiently is important to many people, including taxpayers. As first line supervisors you need to ensure that Air Force members use good time management techniques on the job to promote mission accomplishment. Knowledge of and the ability to apply time management tools can help you become a better supervisor and leader.
  236. What is diversity?
    The fact or quality of being diverse; difference.
  237. Name some factors that create diversity.
    Languages, age, races, gender, culture background, physical abilities, behaviors, likes/dislikes, attitudes, level of education, traditions, disavility, belief systems, languages, value systems, personaliteis, assertiveness level.
  238. What barriers prevent the process of diversity from happening?
    Prejudice, stereotyping, unlawful discrimination, and collusion.
  239. Which barrier entails cooperating with others, knowingly or unknowingly, to reinforce stereotypical attitudes, prevailing behavior, and norms?
    Collusion
  240. Why is diversity in the workplace important?
    Promotes a healthy work environment
  241. Give some examples of how diversity can positively impact the workplace?
    Different viewpoints; different perspectives; collective efforts versus individual efforts; broadened knowledge; effective teamwork is maximized; increased awareness of new ideas; the opportunity for harmony.
  242. What is a democracy?
    A government by and answerable to the people.
  243. What are some principles of our democracy?
    Our democracy is an indirect democracy where the people elect representatives to voice their concerens to goverenment.Our form of democracy believes in the equality of all people and not just a select few; it recognizes the dignity of people and bases the conduct of human affairs on truth and the consent of those same people. Our democracy serves us best because laws, and not one particular man, woman, rule us. In this respect, the government becomes theservent of the people. Similary, our government is forced to treat all its citizens the same. US democracy is based on rule of the majority. That does not mean, however, that the rights of the minority are ignored. This "majority rule" is accepted as long as it does not infringe upon others' rights. Our laws and court systems ensure the process is fair to all.
  244. What are the duties and responibilities of the military citizen within our democracy?
    Stay informed of politcal issues and how they affect the Air Force.
  245. By placing limitations on militay member's participation in politicl event, what is the military attempting to accomplish?
    To avoid the perception that the military supports a specific candidate running for politcal office.
  246. What specific action is not allowed by a military member?
    Participation in a strike.
  247. As military citizens, what is the best way to impact the democratic process?
    Use the power of the vote.
  248. How often can you, as an evaluator, evaluate and report on workers?
    Evaluations and reporting are conducted on personnel continuously.
  249. When might you need to evaluate workers that you do not formally supervise?
    During day-to-day operations, perhaps as a trainer, a team leader, a task certifier, or as a quality assurance evaluator.
  250. Define effective evaluations.
    The accurate assessment of individual performance.
  251. What are some instances when you might need to perform evaluations on subordinates or workers?
    For awards and decorations, to determine if they should be retained or separated, and to select individuals for special positions.
  252. Why is it important that evaluation begins with communication?
    Workers need to know exactly what is expected of them, and standards should be clearly understood. By doing so, workers have the opportunity to meet exepectations.
  253. What is the best measurement of a worker's performance?
    Results of work. If work results meet standards, then the worker is doing what's expected.
  254. What do you do if a worker is not meeting the standards?
    If the worker is doing his or her best and is still unable to meet the standard, it could be an ability or willingness problem. If it is an ability problem, you might provide more training or modify the standard. If it is a willingness problem, now might be the time for corrective counseling.
  255. Why is it noe enough fo you to observe someone's performance only once a week or so?
    You can't observe performance foe only a day or a week and know what an individual's typical performance is. Everyone has good days and bad days; over time, these even out, and the result is typical performance. Observing performance takes place daily over a long period of time. Eventually, you will have to make an assessment of that performance. Comparing your observations with the standards you established initially with the worker does this.
  256. In simple terms, how do you assess a worker's performance?
    Compare your observations of the worker with the standards that you initially established with the worker.
  257. What is the difference between subjectivity and objectivity?
    Subjectiveity involves personal bias or opinion. Objectivity involves only the facts.
  258. As an evaluator, should your observations be subjective or objective? Why or Why not?
    You should make every effort to ensure your evaluations are as objective as possible, but keep in mind that sometimes subjectivity is necessary. The important thing is to make sure you know the difference and ensure your evaluations are fair and honest. Do not allow personal feelings to influence your observations.
  259. Define reporting.
    Reporting can be unoffical, informal, and everyday. In other words, reporting is action(s) taken to report on a subordinate's (or worker's) performance (or behavior) either in writing (formal) or verbally (informal).
  260. What is the purpose of reporting?
    Reporting provides feedback to the worker on behavior or the results of efforts.
  261. Why is evaluation and reporting so important?
    It helps those who work with us to improve themselves and be more sucessful. It increases the likelihood of an effective work center.
  262. For an evaluation to be effective, what three principles must you follow?
    Establish clear standards observe, and, measure
  263. What makes a good, clear standard?
    First, you must have the authority to establish the standard. After that, the standard must address quality, quantity, and/or timeliness. Finally, the standard must be attainable.
  264. What is the second principle of evaluation, and what does it involve?
    Observation. Purposeful observation must form the basis of evaluations and include direct observation of the individual's behavior or performance of the standard.
  265. List three ways observation can be done/
    Direct observation, other's observation, or looking at completed work.
  266. If you are unable to personally observe the performance of your workers, what are your options to fulfill the requirement for observation?
    If you have several workers, if your workers are on a different shift, or if your workers work in different locations, you can depend on the observations of trusted peers. Another option is to observe a completed product or service. You could talk to customers who were provided the service or product. Aslo, you may be able to observe samples of work, inspect reults, observe the workers in a variety of situations, use test results, or have the worker perform the task in front of you.
  267. As the evaluator, what are you doing the measurement principle of evaluation?
    This is where you take the observations and measure them against the standards. You wantto compare performance with standards todetermine whether the standards were met, not met, or exceeded.
  268. How are evaluations used?
    To identify when a worker is meeting or exceeding a standard or if a worker is not meeting the standard. Evaluations can also be used to keep track of typical performance. Also, on-going evaluations provide evaluators with concrete information to make work assignments.
  269. List possible pitfalls evaluators need to aviod.
    Resistance to evaluations, one-way communication, closed-mindedness, and the avoidance of self-evaluations.
  270. Why do some people resist being an evaluator or evaluating other people?
    Because they may not clearly understand what needs to be done or know what is expected.
  271. What three things can you do to avoid being close-minded when conducting evaluations?
    Compare the performance against the standard, ensure you evaluate each factor separately, and make sure you evaluate using current and relevant information.
  272. What are the two principles of reporting?
    Informal and formal.
  273. What is informal reporting?
    Letting workers know how well they did in relation to the standard. This informal reporting can be done through an informal feedback session or perhaps just a pat on the back.
  274. What is the purpose of formal reporting?
    To let workers know how they met (or did not meet) the standard.
  275. List ways reports can be useful?
    Reports let workers know where they stand, and reporting either formally or informally provides a record of performance. Reports also preovide a concrete basis for both subordinate and supervisor decisions. When workers are meeting or exceeding standards, reports can motivate; when workers are not meeting standards, reports can call attention to the need for adjustment.
  276. List four pitfalls to avoid when reporting.
    Positive or negative anticipation, one-way communication, abstract reports, and reports without data.
  277. List reasons why evaluating and reporting are important.
    To have well-developed workers and to increase the effectiveness of your work center.
  278. What are the two main objectives of the PMP?
    To provide appropriate performance feedback to subordinates and to provide a long-term record of subordinate performance.
  279. Whyy is it important to know your subordinates?
    It is the basis, consciously or unconsciously, upon which you base the decisions you make, the procedures you institute, and evaluations you perform.
  280. List at least three reasons why you should take the time to become acquired with those who work for you.
    Any three of the following: To match personal interest with jobs, to predict subordinate responses to planned changes, to increase the flow of subordinate suggestions, to have a basis for influencing group members, and to have a basis for personal feedback (counseling).
  281. What types of information may be helpful in getting to know your subordinates?
    Biographical information, employment history, interest, self-image, needs and values, expectations, standards, goals, perceptions.
  282. While it is very important to get to know your people and to establish a relationship where ideas and suggestions can be expressed freely, what you always remember?
    Be professional. Getting to know your people never takes away from the fact that you are still the supervisor. Maintain your professionalism at all times.
  283. In what ways can the principles of PMP be used by you as a supervisor?
    With EES, decisions such as who is nominated for awards and/or decorations, who is given additional responsibilities, who will or will not be recommended for reenlistment, and who will or will not be given compensatory time off are all applicable to PMP.
  284. What is Step 1 of the PMP?
    Develop performance expectations.
  285. What is the purpose behind the development of performance expectations?
    Performance expectations provide both the supervisor and the subordinate with a complete description of the subordinate's specific duties and explain what duties are to be performed and to what standard they will be performed.
  286. When developing performance expectations, why would it be helpful to use the job description and specific standards?
    Job descriptions provide a word picture describing specific duties to be performed in a given job/duty position. Performance standard statements provide information not found in job descriptions. They dscribe what constitutes satisfactory performance. For this reason, performance standard statements must be specific, observalbe, and measurable.
  287. One limitation of the job description is that it is activities-oriented rather than results-oriented. What does this mean?
    That the job description typically details what an employee does rather than the results to be achieved.
  288. Besides being activiteis-oriented rather than results-oriented, what can be another disadvantage of the job description?
    Some workers see the job description as defining the limits of their jobs and refuse to do anything not specifically listed in the duties and responsibilities section.
  289. What are the attributes of a good, clear performance standard?
    A good, clear performance standard will address qality, quantity, and/or timeliness, will be attainable, and will be measurable.
  290. Describe Step 2 of the Performance Management Process.
    Step 2 involves monitoring performance progress. Monitoring performance progress is purposeful observation over a period of time long enough to ensure a thorough look at typical performance.
  291. When monitoring performance progress describe the three areas you should pay close attention to.
    Results, methods and procedures, and work habits/behaviors. Results concern such things as quantity, quality, and timeless of work accomplished. Observation of methods and procedures should focus on whether or not work is being accomplished in accordance with set or agreed upon proceedures. Work habits and behaviors concern such things as communication, housekeeping, organizing, and punctuality.
  292. List three things you can do when monitoring performance that will help you to be more effective.
    Make notes about behaviors and the impact of those behaviors. Collect examples of work. Make notes frequently and over a period of time so you have a representative sample of behavior (typical performacne). Monitor performance on a regular basis.
  293. Explain Step 3 of the Performance Management Process.
    Step 3 is to evaluate individual performance. Evaluation is the act of measuring observed behavior/performance on a against a standard.
  294. What are some pitfalls to avoid when evaluating an individual's performance.
    Ratability, relevance, variability, personal bias/general impressions, logic.
  295. Briefly discuss ratability as a pitfall when evaluating an individual's performance.
    Ratability can become a pitfall when an evaluator attempts to evaluate factors that are essentially not ratable.
  296. How does relevance affect an individual's performance?
    When essential elements of the job are omitted from consideration (deficiency), when undue weight is given to a particular incident (distortion), or when factors are included that do not contribute to performance (contamination).
  297. Describe how variability is a pitfall when evaluating an individual's performance.
    When evaluations of a group of individuals do not show appropriate differences in individual performance.
  298. What is meant by the term evaluator leniency?
    When evaluator's tend to give high ratings and are relcutant to give low ratings.
  299. What is meant by the term evaluator strictness?
    When the evaluator's standards are unreasonably high.
  300. What is meant by the term central tendency?
    When evaluators rate everyone as average.
  301. What is meant by he term halo effect?
    When one factor or characteristic of a subordinate influences the evaluation of other factors.
  302. Briefly discuss personal bias/general impressions as a pitfall when evaluating an individual's performance.
    Where an evaluator allows his or her personal likes and dislikes or general impressions of the individual being rated to influence the evaluation.
  303. Why is recency as a pitfall when evaluation an indinidual's performacne.
    This can occur when the evaluation is disproportionately affected by recent performance or events. For instance, when a supervisor places more weight on poor performance during past 2 weeks than on the good performance during the preceding 6 months.
  304. Briefly discuss logic as a pitfall when evaluating an individual's performance.
    This occurs if and when an evaluator gives similar ratings to traits that so not necessarily go together. For example, when a supervisor thinks that someone who is industrious is also efficient.
  305. What is the main focus of Step 4?
    Providing relevant and credible feedback to subordinates after conducting performance evaluations.
  306. How can you ensure you conduct a valid and objective evaluation of your subordinates?
    Always compare performance against a predetermined performance standard.
  307. What is the purpose of feedback?
    To provide information to a subordinate for the purpose of maintaining or improving performance, both on and off duty.
  308. To be successful feedback, must meet what three criteria?
    The receiver must be able to understand the feedback, the receiver must accept the feedback, and the receiver must be able to do something with the feedback.
  309. What is the difference between formal and informal feedback?
    Formal feedback is feedback provided as part of a formalized system or program.
  310. What aare a few strategies you can employ to help improve the subordinate?
    Build on the employees' strengths, accentuate their likes, and attempt to relate to their personal goals.
  311. What are three things that may help to improve subordinate performance overall?
    Improve the employee, improve the job, and improve the situation.
  312. What are the two purposes of counseling?
    To promote a change in behavior and to reinforce existing behavior.
  313. Define counseling.
    Counseling is an "active communication process where the supervisor responds to the follower to either promote a change in behavior or reinforce present behavior."
  314. What four aspects of the communication process are involved during counseling?
    Sendor, message, receiver, and feedback.
  315. Is counseling considered a bad thing? Explain your answer.
    No
  316. In what ways can counseling help the follower?
    Benefits for the follower onclude the improved ability to cope with problems, increased ability to make decisions, improved relationship with the leader, and personal growth and development.
  317. Why is honesty so important in the helping relationship?
    Because it creates and reinforces trust, and builds credibility.
  318. Why is mutual respect important in the counseling process?
    If the counselee soes not respect the counselor,
  319. What four factors are critical to the success of a helping relationship or the counseling process?
    Trust, honesty, mutual respect, and openness to feedback.
  320. What can you do to help maintain consistency with your followers?
    By being involved in their daily activities.
  321. Effective receiver skills include what four attrubutes?
    Attendingm observing, listening, and responding.
  322. What are attending skills?
    Skills that involve paying attention and focusing your full attention on the counselee.
  323. What is meant by observing as an effective receiver skill?
    Observing means watching the counselee, paying attention to both the verbal and nonverbal messages.
  324. What part of listening focuses on what's being said and how it is said?
    Content and feeling.
  325. What is meant by acceptance?
    It is remaining objective as you listen to what the counselee is telling you. To remain objective, you must convey a sincere desire to help by withholding personal judgements or biases.
  326. What are four things you can do to help develop your responding skills?
    You can do the following: 1) Use open-ended questions as much as possible to help the counselee explore and clarify his/her thoughts and feelings.2) Reflect or repeat back to the counselee what he or she said and the emotion you think you heard in the voice. This gives the counselee a chance to decide if the message you received is the message that was intended.3) Occasionally summerize to ensure you and the counselee understand what has transpired in the counseling session. Whenever possible, allow the counselee to summarize the session.4) Allow silence. If you are sure the counselee heard your question, let the counselee break the silesnce!! Thought-provoking questions may require the counselee the take a few moments to cinsider their response. Don't rush them; allow the silent time for the counselee to chink and respond. If you interrupt the counselee's thought processes by answering, it can send a signal you don't want his input.
  327. The activities associated with a counseling session can grouped into what three stages?
    Pre-counseling activities, conducting the counseling session, and concluding the session.
  328. What is the first step in preparing for the counseling situation?
    To determine the technique you'll use; counselor-centered, counselee-centered, or combined.
  329. What is the main purpose for the counselor-centered techniqur?
    To let counselee know what they need to do.
  330. Who is responible for the success of the solution when using the counslor-centered technique?
    You as the supervisor/counserlor.
  331. You, as the supervisor, have determined a problem exists. You decided to use the counselor-centered technique. What should you do next?
    Determine the best solution for the problem and how the counselee will implement the solution.
  332. What is your role as the supervisor/counselor during a counselee-centered counseling session?
    The primary role of the counselor in this situation is to serve as a "listening post" or a "sounding board" so the counselee can hear his or her ideas.
  333. When using the counselee-centered approach, who is responsible for successfully solving the problem?
    The counselee-centered approach techniques puts the responsibility for solving the problem on the counselee.
  334. How does the counselee-centered approach begin?
    The counselee has determined a problem exists and has probably developed some potential solutions to the problem.
  335. What is the primary role of the counselor when using the combined technique?
    To help the counselee by providing the information he or she needs to make an informed choice.
  336. When using the combined approach, who is responsible for successfully solving the problem?
    The counselor and the counselee share the responsibility for the session's success.
  337. What should you do in preparation for a counseling session?
    When planning for a counseling session, determine the purpose and objective. Analyze the audience (the counselee). Organize your ideas and goals and have a plan for achieving them. Finally, gather support.
  338. What two steps are involved in preparing the counseling enviornment?
    Being physically prepared and being mentally prepared.
  339. When opening your counseling session what two things can you do to help the session be productive?
    Establish rapport and identify the objective of your time together.
  340. What are a few things you can do to help establish rapport with the counselee at the beginning of the counseling session?
    When the counselee meets with you, greet him or her by name, shake hands, and offer some refreshment (soft drink, coffee, tea, etc.). Open the conversation by asking non-threatening, neutral questions to "break the ice" and replace feelings of fear and tension with trust and warmth. Do what you can to put the counselee at ease without undermining your purpose for meeting.
  341. If you initiated the counselling session how might you tell the counselee the objective of the counseling session?
    You could start with "I've asked to speak with you about..."
  342. If the counselee initiated the counseling session how might you encoutage the counselee to state the objective of the counseling session?
    You could ask the counselee "What did you need to see me about?"
  343. List two tips to keep in mind during the counseling session.
    Speak in terms the counselee will understand - don't baffle the counselee with your brilliance!Maintain your objrctivity and express acceptance for the counselee and his/her situation.
  344. What are you trying to do during the counseling session?
    The goal of the counselor in this stage of the session os to devlop a plan of action or to reach adecision about the problem. Once the goal has been achieve or when the session becomes unproductive, it's time to close it out.
  345. Closing the session involves what two actions?
    Reviewing (summarizing) the session and scheduling the next step if the issue was not resolved.
  346. What is the purpose of reviewing or summarizing the counseling session for the counselee?
    Summaries help ensure your counselee leaves the session with positive feelings and a belirf they learned something about their problem/decision and are now more able to resolve it.
  347. What very important step takes place after the counseling session is finished and the counselee has left?
    You must document the session.
  348. When should you document a counseling session?
    While you shouldn't jot down notes or document during the session, you should write up the counseling session as soon as possible while the information is fresh in your mind. Use a local form or a letter of counseling to document your information.
  349. How do you determine your counseling sessions have been effective?
    By taking follow-up actions which involve a through investigation to find out if your counselees are progressing toward resolving their problems.
  350. What are some of the things that can limit your effectiveness as a counselor?
    Time, environment, privacy, personality conflict with the counselee, lack of a helping relationship, poor counseling ability, and poor communication skills.
  351. How can a lack of confidentiality affect the counseling process?
    A lack of confidentiality can affect the counseling process by lessening the interaction since followers will feel they have no right to privacy. The counseling process is less effective because followers will deliberately counceal important information. Followers will be reluctant to initiate counseling ig the supervisor violates the helping relationship.
  352. What is the importance of referral agencies?
    You can't alwats help everyone solve every possible problem. Referral agencies ensure the person gets the help you can't give. They can provide prefessional counseling when the problem is beyond yout capabilities. They're also an important resource to help overcome limitations of both supervisors and followers.
  353. What are some common base level referral agencies you can use?
    Legal officem Area Defense Counsel, Hospital, Chaplain, MPF or the Human Resources Advisor, Finance, Family Support Center, American Red Cross, Child Development Services, Education Center, Inspector General, MEO (Military Equal Opportunity), Senior Enlisted Advisor.

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