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2014-03-03 03:16:01
Essential Oils

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  1. Basil           (Ocimum Basilicum) Top note
    Plant Family- Lamiaceae (Labiatae)
    Part of plant -Flowers and leaves of the herb
    Country- Asia&Africa,Now-Italy,France and USA.
    Chemicals- Linalol (Alcohol),eugenol,methyl chavicol,limonine and citronellol
    Extraction method-Steam distillation
    •  Therapeutic Actions:
    • Basil  (Ocimum Basilicum)
    • 1.Antiseptic
    • 2.Antispasmodic
    • 3.Cephalic
    • 4.Emmenagogue
    • 5.Tonic
    • 6.Uplifting
    • 7.Warming
    • 8.Prophylactic
    • Skin-tonic effect on acne:reduces inflammation of wasps stings,
    • Muscular/digestive- antispasmodic,relives muscle tightness,especially in the intestines and stomach
    • Nervous- uplifting for depression,insomnia,
    • stress,helps to focus the mind and aids concentration,headaches,migraine,fainting fits,neuralgia,neuritis
    • Reproductive- amenorrhoea (absence of periods) or irregular/scanty menstruation
    • Respiratory-sinusitis
    • When shouldn't it be used?On sensitive skin and pregnant women
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Basil is excellent for clearing the mind of worries and clutter and lifting one's spirit.

  2. Benzoin   ( Styrax Benzoin)- Base note
    Family:    Styracaceae             Warming
    Where from: Sumatra, Java and Thailand
    Part used to make oil: The resin of the benzoin tree.
    Chemical make up: Ester and sumaresinolic acid,combined with benzoic acid and traces of cinnamic acid,vanillin and benzaldehyde.
    Extraction bySolvent extraction
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Benzoin   ( Styrax Benzoin)
    • 1.Caminative
    • 2.Expectorant
    • 3.Sedative
    • 4.Cordial
    • 5.Vulnerary
    • 6.Warming
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :  
    • Skin – reduces inflammations andrelieves symptoms of dermititis, cracked and chapped skin.
    • Skeletal – warming effect reduces inflammation caused by rheumatoid arthritis and gout.
    • Circulatory – warms heart and circulation and thus improves their efficiency.
    • Nervous – stress, relieves tension.
    • Digestive – aids digestion and relieves flatulence.
    • Urinary-cystitis.
    • When not to use : It's relatively safe to use, though sensitive skins may react to it.
    • The one thing to remember!!! Benzoin creates a feeling of euphoria, and has a worming effect on the whole body, especially the heart, lungs and circulation.

  3. Bergamot (Citrus Bergamia)   Top note   
    Plant Family:    Rutaceae
    Part used to make oilPeel of the fruit

    Where from: Native to the tropical Asia but now cultivated in Northern and Southern Italy
    Extraction byBy expression
    Chemical make up: Ester – linolil acetate,and linolool
    Uplifting and have antidepressant properties
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Bergamot (Citrus Bergamia)
    • 1.Analgesic
    • 2.Antiseptic
    • 3.Antiviral
    • 4.Cooling
    • 5.Relaxing
    • 6.Sedative
    • 7.Laxative
    • 8.Vermifuge
    • 9.Uplifting
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit : 
    • Nervous: uplifting thus reduces anger,
    • frustration, anxiety, stress and the symptoms of depression.
    • Urinary:cystitis.
    • Immune: strengthens system.
    • Skin: Antiseptic, thus useful
    • for treating many skin conditions such us eczema, psoriasis, acne.
    • Digestive: relieves flatulence,
    • colic and painful digestion; helps regulate appetite.
    • Respiratory – relieves symptoms
    • of colds, flu and bronchitis as well as reducing inflammations and infections
    • such as tonsillitis and sore throats
    • When not to use 
    • Before going into the sun or on to a
    • sunbed since it increases the sensitivity to ultraviolet light.
    • NB: Bergaptene-free bergamot should be used where possible because bergaptene is a furocoumarin which is the photo-toxic ingredient.
    • The one thing to remember!!!  
    • Like other citrus oils bergamot is uplifting and cheerful
  4. Cedarwood Atlas(Cedrus atlantica)
                                                    Base note
    Family: Pinaceae      
    Where from: Algeria and Morocco 
    Part used to make oilWood stumps or sawdust .
    Extraction by:  By Steam distillation
    Chemical make up: may consist atlantone,(ketone),cedrol,cedrene,caryophyllene,
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Cedarwood Atlas(Cedrus atlantica) 
    • 1.Antiseptic
    • 2.Antifungal
    • 3.Antiseborrhoeic
    • 4.Astringent
    • 5.Diuretic
    • 6.Expectorant
    • 7.Mucoylitic
    • 8.Nervine
    • 9.Sedative
    • 10.Tonic
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin:dandruff, seborrhoea of scalp, acne,
    • oily skin.
    • Muscular: Aches and pains,stiffness.
    • Nervous: Reduces anxiety, tension
    • and stress.
    • Urinary: Cystitis and urinary tract infections.
    • Lymphatic system:Cellulite and oedema.
    • Respiratory:coughs,colds,catarrh,bronchitis.
    • When not to use
    • Should not be used during pregnancy but is
    • generally non-toxic and non irritating
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Is useful for respiratory problems, and suitable for men as the odour is woody and sweet.

                                                Top / Middle note
    Family: Myrtaceae  
    Where from: Australia
    Part used to make oilleaves and twigs
    Extraction byWater or steam distillation
    Chemical make up: Alcohol,terpinen-4-ol,1-8 cineole,pinene.
    Antiseptic and stimulant – particularly for the immune system

    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1.Anti-inflammatory
    • 2.Antiseptic
    • 3.Antiviral
    • 4.Bactericidal
    • 5.Cooling
    • 6.Fungicidal
    • 7.Immuno-stimulant
    • 8.Sudorific
    • 9.Vulnerary
    • 10.Tonic
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    •  Skin: any FUNGAL or VIRAL infections:
    • cold sores and spots (used neat), acne, athlete’s foot,warts,verrucas;
    • infected wounds or boils;blisters, burns, sunburn,dandruff,general itching.
    • Immune: boosts the immune system, thus can help shorten time of illness by helping body’s defenses to fight back;
    • General: useful to prepare body for
    • an operation and to help it recover.
    • Respiratory – flu,colds,catarrh,promotes sweating so can reduce fever.
    • Lymphatic – glandular fever.
    • Urinary – thrush, cystitis (bladder infection),
    • urinary tract infections.
    • Nervous – revitalizes the mind.
    • When not to use !!
    • Generally safe, can irritate the skin in
    • some cases. 
    • The one think to remember!!!
    •  Tea tree is a rarity amongst oils  in that it has been proven to have an effect on all three types of infections that attack the
    • body: bacteria,viruses and fungi.
    • It is therefore useful for treating and
    • preventing infections.
    Ylang Ylang   (Cananga odorata)  
    Family:  Annonacea                       properties
    Where from: Indinesia, the Philippines, Madagascar. 
    Part used to make oil: Flower petals
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical makeup: (Sesguiterpene),
    farnesene,methyl benzoate,benzyl acetate,linalool,geraniol,and panene.
    • Therapeutic actions: 
    • Cananga odorata
    • 1.Antidepressant   
    • 2.Aphrodisiac
    • 3.Hypotensive
    • 4.Relaxing
    • 5.Sedative 
    • 6.Tonic  
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit Cananga odorata
    • Skin: balances sebum production
    • both for oily and dry skins; extractive effect on acne i.e. draws out the spot and infection (so it will get worst before it will get better)
    • Circulatory:slows over-rapid breathing (hyperpnea) and heartbeat (tachycardia); reduces high blood pressure.
    • Nervous : antidepressant, creates feelings of joy, calms central nervous system.
    • Endocrine: regulates flow of the adrenaline and thus slows it effects reducing stress, anger, frustration,panic, fear and shock; Balances hormones
    • Reproductive: tonic for womb; impotence, frigidity. 
    • When not to use !
    • Ylang ylang has a very heady perfume and
    • can cause headaches and nausea. It should therefore be used in moderation.
    • The one thing to remember!!! 
    • Ylang ylang has a euphoric effect, promoting positive emotions in the user and
    • is calming and sedating in the times of stress!!!

  7. Mandarin   (CITRUS NOBILIS)  Top- note
    Family: Rutaceae 
    Where from:Southern China and Eastern Asia
    Part used to make oil: The Peel of the fruit
    Extraction by: Expression
    Chemical make up:  Monoterpene,a&B pinene plus methyl,methyl-anthrilate,
    geraniol and citral.
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Mandarin   (CITRUS NOBILIS)
    • 1.Antiviral
    • 2.Carminative
    • 3.Relaxing
    • 4.Antispasmotic
    • 5.Tonic
    • 6. Sedative
    • 7.Uplifting
    • 8.Astringent
    • 9.Cytophylactic
    • 10.Mild diuretic
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Digestive: tonifies digestion, expels wind,
    • calms the stomach and stimulates appetite
    • Skin: helps cell growth for scar tissue and stretch marks; astringent for oily skin.
    • Lymphatic: mild duretic qualities help cellulite,oedema.
    • Nervous: mandarin's refreshing aroma lifts anxiety and symptoms of depression as well as helping insomniacs.
    • Reproductive – helps PMT
    •  When not to use!
    • It can be mildly phototoxic if used before
    • exposure to sunlight .
    • The one think to remember!!!
    • Refreshing and happy, soothing and
    • relaxing and eases all aspects of nervous exhaustion and anxiety. It is useful for treating children and the frail or elderly.

  8. Lavender (true) Lavendula angustifolia 
    Family: Lamiaceae (Labitae) 
    Where from:Mediterranean countries, especially France; England
    Part used to make oil:The flowers
    Extraction by: Steem destilation
    Chemical make up Ester (linalyl acetate),Linalol (Alcohol),lavandulyl,acetate and lavandulol  
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Lavender (true) Lavendula angustifolia 
    •  Adaptogenic
    • 1.Analgesic
    • 2.Anti-inflammatory
    • 3.Antiseptic
    • 4.Antispasmotic
    • 5.Antiviral
    • 6.Balancing
    • 7.Cooling
    • 8.Detoxifying
    • 9.Fungisidal
    • 10.Hypotensive
    • 11.Relaxing
    • 12.Sedative
    • 13.Tonic
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin:effective for use on all skin types and conditions– balances seabum in oily skin, promotes cell growth and rapid healing for scars and stretch marks, antiseptic for
    • insect bites and stings,burns, sunburns, wounds, healing for dermatitis and
    • psoriasis (compress,cream).
    • Nervous – BALANCES EMOTIONS, lifts depression, relieves stress,insomnia and  anxiety;relieves headaches, migraine,
    • tension, shock.
    • Skeletal: eases rheumatism.
    • Muscular: soothes and relieves aches, pains and sprains (aloevera +drops)
    • Circulatory:lowers high blood pressure and other stress related conditions such as palpitations.
    • Respiratory: relaxes breathing,eases bronchitis, larygitis;antiviral effect on flu and colds.
    • When not to use !!
    • Neither toxic or irritating.
    • The one think to remember!!!
    • The whole body can benefit from lavender.
    • It is an all-rounder,usefull for treating all conditions as well as relaxing and balancing the whole body.
    Lemon    (Citrus Limon)               Top  note
    Family:   Rutaceae  
    Where from:Lemon trees are cultivated all over the world. Native to Asia, India and also grow wild in a Mediterranean countries
    such as Spain and Portugal.
    Part used to make oil:Fresh peel (zest)
    Extraction by: Cold expression
    Chemical make up:Monoterpene,limonene,
    citronellol and citral,a&b pinene.

    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Lemon    (Citrus Limon) 
    • 1.Antiseptic
    • 2.Antiviral
    • 3.Detoxyfying
    • 4.Depurative
    • 5.Diuretic
    • 6.Fungicidal
    • 7.Haemostatic
    • 8.Hypotensive
    • 9.Stimulant
    • 10.Tonic
    • 11. Uplifting
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Respiratory: protects against infections like cold and flu, lowers temperature.
    • Immune: stimulates immune system to produce protective white blood cells.
    • Circulatory: tonifies blood and improves circulation, reduces pressure on varicose
    • veins, lowers high blood pressure, slows external bleeding including nosebleeds.
    • Digestive: dyspepsia (upset stomach)
    • Nervous: refreshes and stimulates the mind, allowing clarity of thought.
    • Skin: – useful for boils,warts,acne/other seborrhoeic conditions.
    • When not to use
    • PHOTOTOXIC – NOT TO USE BEFORE GOING TO THE SUN.It may irritate the skin and should be used in small concentrations.
    • The one think to remember!!!
    • Can irritate the skin don't use on he face
    • Protects and stimulates the systems of the body and lifts the emotions.

  10. Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon Citratus)                       Top note
    Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)  
    Where from: Asia, West Indies, East India
    Part used to make oil:Leaves of the grass ( fresh and partly dried )
    Extraction by: Steam destillation
    Chemical make up: Aldehyde,citronelol,
    geraniol, plus traces of other compounds such as limonene and myrcene
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Lemon Grass(   Cymbopogon Citratus)
    • 1.Antidepressant
    • 2.Antiseptic
    • 3.Astringent
    • 4.Stimulant
    • 5.Tonic
    • 6.Uplifting
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Digestive:  stimulates appetite, relieves indigestion and gastro-enteritis
    • Skeletal: useful for aching joints, gout, rheumatism
    • Muscular:  tonifies aching muscles, tired
    • legs and veins,relieves muscle fatigue; useful for sport injuries
    • Nervous:stimulates, revives,energises the emotions and relieves stress-related
    • conditions and nervous exhaustion.
    • Skin:tonifies open pores,acne,oily skin; insect repellent.
    • Respiratory: antiseptic affect on infections, sore throats,laryngitis.
    • Immune system: – reduces fever
    • When not to use!
    • Lemon grass is not toxic but may irritate
    • the skin
    • The one think to remember!!!
    • Can irritate the skin don't use on he face!
    • Lemon grass is stimulating and refreshing for muscles and skin.Great insect repellent, can be used for pre-event massage.

  11. Camomile German(Matricaria Recutita)  
                                                  Middle note
    Family:   Asteraceae (Compositae)     
    Where from:Europe, specifically Hungary and Bulgaria,still grown and exported from Germany
    Part used to make oil: The flowers
    Extraction by:Steam distillation
    Chemical make up: Sesquiterpene
    • Therapeutic actions:Camomile German(Matricaria Recutita)
    • 1.Analgesic
    • 2.Anti-allergic
    • 3.Anti-inflammatory
    • 4Antispasmodic
    • 5.Emmenagogue (mild)       
    • 6.Sedative
    • 7.Stimulant (immune system)
    • 8.Vulnerary
    • 9.Vermifuge
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin :calms and soothes many skin conditions, especially allergies, bruises,
    • eczema, blisters, acne, psoriasis and ulcers
    • Skeletal: eases aching joints and infant teething pains, arthritis
    • Muscular:  relieves muscle pain
    • Nervous:  relaxes thus relieving anxiety, tension and insomnia
    • Digestive: regulates peristalsis thus relieving Irritable Bowel Syndrome;
    • relieves indigestion and nusea
    •  Reproductive: antispasmodic so relieves period pain; also relieves symptoms
    • of PMT and menopause
    • Immune :stimulates whole system
    •  When not to use! 
    • In the early stages of pregnancy. Some
    • very sensitve skins may react to it so the skin test should be performed
    • prior to use
    •  The one think to remember!!!
    • Chamomile is very versatile, calming and relaxing, good for children ( especially if
    • hyperactive) the frail and the eldery.Anti allergic,ani-inflammatory, sedative,            relaxing,healing, soothing, calming

  12.  Chamomile (Roman) Chamaemelum nobile                                      Middle note            
    Family:   Asteraceae (compositae)          
    Where from: Europe, especially England, Belgium, France and USA
    Part used to make oilFlowers
    Extraction by: Steam destillation
    Chemical make up: Ester
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Chamomile (Roman)Chamaemelum nobile 
    • 1.Anelgesic
    • 2.Anti – inflammatory,
    • 3.Antiseptic,
    • 4.Antispasmodic
    • 5.Bactericidal,
    • 6.Emmenagogue,
    • 7.Sedative (nervous system)
    • 8.Stomachic
    • 9.Vulnerary
    • 10.Vermifuge
    • 11.Tonic
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin: rashes, allergies, dry skin conditions; effective for eczema, psoriasis
    • Skeletal: soothes joint inflammations, arthritis
    • Muscular: soothes
    • inflammations, aches and pains
    • Nervous: stress, depression,
    • insomnia, relaxing thus reduces tension and anxiety
    • Digestive: teeth abscesses,
    • diarrhea, nausea, upset stomach, nervous indigestion
    • When not to use!!
    • Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitivities;
    • however may cause reactions in some individuals – skin patch test prior to
    • use. No known contraindications and is good for use with children.
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    •  Roman chamomile, like the German variety, is calming and effective and a good all-round oil.

  13. Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea)
    Family:    Lamiaceae (Labiatae)          
    Where from: England, Russia, Morocco, France, Italy, Spain
    Part used to make oil: Leaves and flowers
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical make up: (Ester)linalool,pinene and myrcene
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea)
    • 1.Anti-inflammatory
    • 2.Antispasmodic
    • 3.Relaxing
    • 4.Sedative
    • 5.Tonic
    • 6.Uplifting
    • 7.Hypotensive oil
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skinreduces lammation, oily skin
    • Muscular – relaxes muscles,
    • reduces spasm, muscle fatigue, cramp, fibrositisNervous – uplifts and promotes
    • feeling of well-being/euphoria, soothes nervous tension, panic and acts as a
    • sedative, relieves headache and migraine symptoms
    • Respiratory – antispasmodic
    • properties ease symptoms of asthma
    • Reproductive/endocrine – balances
    • hormones, relieves PMT, fluid retention and painful cramps, menopausal
    • symptoms
    • Immune – General tonic strengthens
    • immune system making it useful for the weak/convalescent
    • When not to use
    • During pregnancy and before or after
    • drinking alcohol (the oil can increase the effects of drunkenness).
    • Non-toxic, Non-irritant, non-sensitizing.
    • The one thing to remember!!
    • Clary sage is warming, relaxing and uplifting

  14. Cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens)
    Family:  Cupressaceae             
    Where from: Mediterranean countries such as France,Spain, Italy, Portugal; also parts of North Africa. 
    Part used to make oil:Leaves/ needles and cones (like small fruits)
    Extraction by:Steam distillation
    Chemical :Monoterpene,camphene
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Cypress  (Cupressus sempervirens)
    • 1.Antispasmodic
    • 2.Astringent
    • 3.Haemostatic,
    • 4.Diuretic
    • 5.Tonic
    • 6.Uplifting
    • 7.Constrictive
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Cells and tissue of the whole body:
    • astringent; acts as a diuretic, acts on the cellulite and water retention.
    • Skin: Controls water loss, oil and sweat production;good for excessive perspiration, oily and mature skins.
    • Circulatory: narrows blood vessels
    • so eases varicose veins, haemorrhoids and heavy bleeding
    • Reproductive: regulates problems
    • related to menstruation (heavy periods,PMT, hormonal and menopausal problems).
    • When not to use 
    • Generally safe and not irritating. 
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Cypress is a strong astringent so it controls the body's production of liquids(excess sweat or fluid retention, heavy menstrual bleeding)
  15. Eucaliptus Globulus (Eucaliptus Globulus)                                           TOP note
    Family:  Myrtaceae  
    Where from:Tasmania and Australia, now also grown in Mediterranean – Spain and Portugal
    Part used to make oil:Leaves and twigs of the tree
    Extraction by: Steam destillation
    Chemical make up:of 1-8 cineole (Oxide),limonene and a-panine
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Eucaliptus Globulus (Eucaliptus Globulus) 
    • 1.Analgesic
    • 2.Antiseptic
    • 3.Antispasmodic
    • 4.Antiviral
    • 5.Depiurative
    • 6.Expectorant
    • 7.Prophylactic
    • 8.Stimulant
    • 9.Uplifting
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Respiratory – effective for
    • all cold and flu symptoms as well as throat infections, catarrh, sinusitis,asthma,coughs, infections,(expectorant – clears mucus by encouraging coughs)
    • Immune – stimulates body's immunity against infections
    • Skeletal – eases reumathism
    • Muscular – relieves aches and pains
    • Urinary – cystitis (along with lemon and bergamot)
    • Nervous - clears the head,calms emotions, headaches
    • Skin – infections and dull,congested skin, burns, wounds, outbreaks of spots (not for face)
    • When not to use 
    • Should only be used in low dilutions since
    • it may irritate the skin. It is incompatible with homeopathic treatments. It is toxic if taken internally.
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Protects the whole body against diseases and viruses by strengthening the immune
    • system.
  16. Eucaliptus Citriodora (Eucaliptus Citriodora)
                                        TOP note
    Family:  Myrtaceae          
    Where from: Australia, South America, South Africa
    Part used to make oil: The leaves
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical make up: Eucaliptus citriodora may consist of citronellal (aldehyde), citronellol, geraniol and pinene
    • Therapeutic actions:Eucaliptus Citriodora (EucaliptusCitriodora)
    • 1.antiseptic
    • 2.antiviral
    • 3.bactericidal
    • 4.expectorant
    • 5.stimulant    
    • 6.uplifting
    • 7.insect repellent
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin: fungal infections,herpes, dandruff, insect repellent
    • Respiratory: asthma, throat infections
    • Immune: colds, influenza, infections

    • When not to use 
    • Non-toxic, non-sensitising, non-irritant,
    • but a skin test is required for sensitive skins.
    • Not compatible with homeopathic remedies.
    • Eucalyptus oil is toxic if taken internally.
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Lemon-scented Eucalyptus citriodora is a
    • good insect repellent
  17. Eucaliptus Dives (Eucaliptus dives)     
                                         TOP note            
    Family: Myrtaceae             
    Where from: Australia, South Africa
    Part used to make oil: Leaves
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical make up: pipertone(ketone),a-phillandrene,viridiflorol,terpinen-4-ol.
    • Therapeutic actions:Eucaliptus Dives (Eucaliptus dives) 
    • 1.Antiseptic
    • 2.Analgesic
    • 3.Antiviral
    • 4.Antifungal
    • 5.Decongestant
    • 6.Expectorant
    • 7.Mucoylitic
    • 8.Rubefacient
    • 9.Stimulant
    • 10.Uplifting
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin – fungal infections, wounds,sores
    • Skeletal – arthritis, rheumatism
    • Muscular – aches and pains,sporting injuries
    • Nervous – headaches, migraines,
    • Respiratory- asthma, throat infections, bronchitis, coughs, influenza, infectious illnesses
    • When not to use
    • Non-toxic, non-sensitising, non-irritant.
    • Not compatible with homeopatic remedies. Eucalyptus oil is toxic if taken internally.
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Mint-scented Eucaliptus dives is good for resprespiratory conditions.
    Eucaliptus Smithii(Eucaliptus smithii)                                               TOP note   
    Family: Myrtaceae             
    Where from: South Africa and Australia
    Part used to make oil: the leaves 
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical make up:1-8 cineole (Oxide),limonene,globulol,a-pinene,and other compouds.
    • Therapeutic actions: 
    • Eucalyptus Smithii(Eucalyptus smithii) 
    • 1.Antiseptic
    • 2.Analgesic
    • 3.Antiviral
    • 4.Antibacterial
    • 5.Decongestant
    • 6.Expectorant
    • 7.Rubefacient
    • 8.Stimulant
    • 9.Uplifting
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Respiratory – asthma, throat infections, bronchitis, coughs, catarrh
    • Immune – colds, influenza,infectious illnesses
    • Skin – acne, boils, infections
    • Sceletal – arthritis, rheumatism
    • Muscular – aches and pains
    • Nervous – Headaches, migraines
    • When not to use
    • Non-toxic, non-sensitizing,non-irritant
    • but a skin test is required for sensitive skin. Non compatible with homeopathic remedies. Eucalyptus oil is toxic if taken internally.
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Suitable for children and the elderly,
    • Eucaliptus smithii is good for skin infections and respiratory conditions
    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)                                                           TOP/Middle note            
    Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)         
    Where from: Mediterranean countries such as France,Italy, Greece
    Part used to make oil:The crushed seeds
    Extraction by:Steam distillation
    Chemical make up: May consist of methyl chavicol (Phenolic Ether),trans-anethole,limonene,pinene,phellandrene.
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) 
    • .Anti-septic   
    • .Antispasmodic
    • .Carminative
    • .Depurative
    • .Diuretic
    • .Galactagogue
    • .Emmenagogue
    • .Laxative
    • .Antimicrobial
    • .Tonic
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit : 
    • Skin – clears congestion;antiseptic qualities helps bruises to heal and relieve pain and irritation from bites and stings
    • Skeletal – helps rheumatism
    • Circulatory – helps reduce cellulite
    • Lymphatic – oedema, eliminates toxins
    • Digestive – eases spasm in digestive tract, relieves colic, flatulence, constipation.
    • Reproductive – eases PMT,amenorrhoea and menopausal problems; increases milk flow in nursing mothers
    • Urinary – cleanses kidneys and stimulates them
    • General – detoxifies the body,good for hangovers
    • When not to use
    • During pregnancy, for epileptics and in
    • large doses (which can be narcotic).
    • Otherwise, it is generally non-toxic and
    • safe to use on the skin.
    • N.B. Sweet fennel should never be confused with bitter fennel which Is not recommended for use.
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Fennel cleans out the body. It is a natural diuretic and depurative, so it helps to
    • get rid of the cellulite, flatulence, water retention or constipation.

    Frankincense (Boswellia sacra) BASE note       Family:  Bursacea        
    Where from: Comes from the tree or shrub which grows in the Red Sea region. It now also grows in Africa, especially the
    North-east, Somalia and Ethiopia.
    Part used to make oil:The resin of the tree or shrub
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical make up:a-pinene, (Monoterpene)and limonene
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Frankincense (Boswellia sacra)
    • 1. Emmenagogue
    • 2. Expectorant
    • 3. Relaxing
    • 4. Rubefacient
    • 5. Sedative
    • 6. Tonic
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin – rejuvenates mature skins by
    • smoothing wrinkles and dry skins; balances oily skins
    • Nervous – comforting, warming,relaxing; Burn (in burner) during meditation to help focus the mind, stress,anxiety
    • Respiratory – helps asthma,bronchitis, coughs, laryngitis, clears mucus and catarrh;  calms breathing
    • Urinary – eases symptoms of cystitis
    • Reproductive – dysmenhorrea, metrorrhagia
    • When not to use
    • Non-toxic, non-irritant
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Is emotionally balancing, producing a sense of calm.

  21. Geranium  Pelargonium Graveolens
    Family:   Geraniaceae           
    Where from:Native to South Africa, now grown worldwide,especially in Mediterranean Europe, Russia, Egypt
    Part used to make oil: The whole plant contains the essential oil so most of it is used: the leaves, flowers and flower stalks
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical :Geraniol,(Alcohol),citronellol and linalool,with traces of limonene and methone.
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1.Astringent
    • 2. Antidepressant
    • 3.Diuretic
    • 4.Anti-inflammatory
    • 5.Balancing
    • 6.Haemostatic
    • 7.Vulnerary
    • 8.Vermifuge
    • 9.Stimulant
    • 10.Tonic
    • 11.Uplifting
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin– benefits all skin types,
    • balances sebum, helps keep skin supple, tonifies dull, congested skins,improves circulation thus preventing chilblains and enlivening pale skin,bruises, eczema, broken capillaries
    • Circulatory/ lymphatic – improves circulation and stimulates lymphatic system, oedema, cellulite
    • Nervous – tonic, lifts the spirit  and relieves anxiety,depression and stress.
    • Endocrine/reproductive – balances
    • the hormones, thus regulating PMT, menopouse (especially the depression
    • asociated with this), and heavy periods.
    • When not to use
    • On very sensitive skin. Otherwise it is
    • completely safe
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Geranium balances both mind and body, is emotionally uplifting and stimulates the
    • circulation.

  22. Ginger (Zingiber officinale)  Middle note      
    Family:   Zingiberaceae           
    Where from: Asia (especially India), tropical
    countries (especially Jamaica and West Indies) and Nigeria
    Part used to make oil: The thick, horizontal root of the plant,known as rhizome. This are dried and ground. 
    Extraction by: By steam distillation
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
    • 1.Stimulating 
    • 2.Tonic  
    • 3.Analgesic  
    • 4.Laxative  
    • 5.Warming   
    • 6.Rubefacient
    • 7.Antispasmodic
    • 8.Analgesic
    • 9. Stomachic
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin – stimulates circulation thus helps heal bruises and chilblains
    • Skeletal – eases joint pains,arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
    • Muscular – relieves cramps, muscle spasms and sprains
    • Circulatory – stimulates the circulation which helps to ease blood vessels problems such as varicose veins, warming to cold hands and feet
    • Nervous – warms emotions,especially when lethargic and fatigued
    • Digestive – settles the stomach,nausea, motion sickness, stimulates appetites
    • Respiratory – eases the flu and cold sympthoms, especially catarrh, sore throats, fever, runny nose,bleeds
    • General – removes toxins, stimulates and wakes up body,
    • When not to use
    • On very sensitive skin, as it can be
    • photo-toxic. Ginger is spicy and can thus be irritant. Should only be used in low concentrations.
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    • Spicy and worm. It stimulates the circulation and wakes up sluggish, tired body. It also calms and settles the stomach.

  23. Jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum) Base note  Family:OLEACEAE          
    Where from: China, Northern India, Egypt, France and many Mediterranean countries
    Part used to make oil: The flowers 
    Extraction by: Concrete – produced by solvent extraction;further solvent extraction produces an absolute which may then be steam distilled to produce the essential oil. The traditional method (and the most expensive ) is enfleurage
    Chemical make up: benzyl acetate(Ester),linalool,jasmone,a&b-pinene
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • Jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum)
    • 1.Antidepressant
    • 2.Antispasmodic
    • 3.Galactagogue 
    • 4.Parturient
    • 5.Relaxing 
    • 6.Sedative 
    • 7.Tonic (uterine)
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin – encourages cell renewal
    • thus heals scar tissue and reduces 
    • stretch marks; hydrates and soothes dry, mature skin and increases  elasticity
    • Nervous – improves self-confidence, optimism, lifts depression, calms nerves and worms emotions;eases nerve pain
    • Reproductive/endocrine – balances
    • hormones in PMT and menopause; eases child labour pains and speeds up delivery
    • When not to use 
    • Jasmine is useful at the end of pregnancy,
    • because it strengthens uterine contractions, but it is thus not recommended for use during pregnancy.
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    •    Jasmine rejuvenates the skin and the soul, relaxes, soothes and uplifts.
  24.  Juniper (berry)                     note            

    Botanical name: Juniperus communis

    Family:  Cupressaceae            
    Where from: Naturally grows in the north, particularly Siberia, Canada and in scandinavian countries. However oil is mainly produced in France, Italy, Hungary, the Chech Republic and Slovakia
    Part used to make oil:
     The best oil comes from the dried berries
    but a chipper oil is made from the needles and wood of the tree.
    NB – only juniper berry oil is recommended
    for use in aromatherapy.
    Extraction by: Steam destillation
    Chemical make up: 
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1.  Antiseptic  
    • 2.  antispasmodic  
    • 3.    depurative
    • 4.   diuretic 
    • 5.    emmenagogue
    • 6.    relaxing
    • 7.    sedative
    • 8.    stimulant
    • 9.    tonic
    • 10. warming
    • rubefacient
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :  
    • Skin – detoxifies blocked pores,
    • acne, oily skin; good for dermatitis, psoriasis and eczema
    • Skeletal – warming effects eases
    • symptoms of arthritis, rheumatism and gout
    • Circulatory – aids cellulite
    • Nervous – clears and stimulates
    • the mind, relieves stress-related conditions and tension
    • Urinary – cystitis; diuretic helps
    • fluid retention
    • When not to use 
    • Juniper is ABORTIFACIENT (stimulates the
    • uterus muscles) so it should never be used during the pregnancy. It may also
    • irritate the kidneys disease and should not be used with those with kidney
    • diseasesor on those who have ever suffered from nephritis. Prolonged use can
    • cause kidney damage.
    • The one thing to remember!!! Juniper
    • detoxifies, cleaning out the body and mind of excesses, whether fluids,
    • anxieties or the build-up of toxins.
    Lavandin – (a hybrid plant from a cross of true lavender and lavender spike.              note            

    Botanical Name: Lavandula x intermedia
    Family:     Lamiaceae (labiatae)          properties
    Where from: The mediterranean, but cultivated worldwide
    Part used to make oil: The flowers
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical make up:
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1.  Antispasmodic  
    • 2.   analgesic 
    • 3.    antimicrobial
    • 4.  mucolytic  
    • insecticide
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin – insect repellent
    • Circulatory  palpitations
    • Digestive – stimulates the
    • appetite, soothes colic, flatulence
    • Respiratory – infections, colds,
    • dlu
    • Muscular – soothes aches and
    • pains, antispasmodic
    • Nervous – stimulating and
    • uplifting 
    • When not to use 
    • Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitising.
    •  The one thing to remember!!!
    •    Commonly
    • used to adulterate other oils, particularly Lavendula angustifolia.
    • Inexpensive and suitable for use in burners and vaporises, particularly for
    • respiratory conditions.

  26. Lavender, spike                    

    Botanical name: Lavandula latifolia
    Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)           

    Where from: Mediterranean, particularly France and Spain
     Part used to make oil: The flowers
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
     Chemical make up:
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1.  Analgesic  
    • 2.    expectorant
    • 3.    mucolityc
    • 4.    insecticide
    • 5.    vulnerary
    • uplifting
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin – insect repellent
    • Muscular/skeletal – aches and
    • pains, rheumatism
    • Nervous – headaches
    • Respiratory – Cold, flu, and
    • catarrh
    •  When not to use
    • Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitising.
    • However use in low concentration, as the camphor content is considered
    • neurotoxic
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    •  Lavender spike is uplifting oil useful for aches and pains.
    Marjoram (sweet)             

    Botanical name: Origanum Majorana
    Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)     

    Where from: 
    Mediterranean countries such as Spain,
    France and Egypt; also parts of North Africa
    Part used to make oil: Dried flowers and leaves 
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical make up:
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1.   Analgesic 
    • 2.    antispasmodic
    • 3.    emmenagogue
    • 4.    relaxing
    • 5.    sedative
    • 6. tonic   
    • 7.    nervine
    • 8.    laxative
    • 9.    vulnerary
    • 10. vasodilatory
    • 11. warming
    • hypotensive
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin – healps heal bruises
    • Skeletal – eases joint problems
    • Muscular – eases aches and pains,
    • especially after sport, also helps period camps
    • Circulatory – lowers high blood
    • preassure, improves poor circulation and prevents chilblains
    • Nervous – calms and soothes the
    • emotions, epecially in times of stress, grief and loneliness; good for
    • headaches, insomnia and migraines
    • Digestive – eases stomach cramps,
    • indigestion and constipation
    • Respiratory – eases congestion in
    • nose and sinuses, relieves asthma and bronchitis
    • When not to use
    •  Emmenagogue and should not be used during pregnancy 
    •  The one thing to remember!!!
    •  Marjoram is a soothing and comforting oil, which calms over-active minds, warms the
    • body and relieves anxiety and distress.
  28.  Myrrh             

    Botanical name: Commiphora myrrha
    Family:     Burseraceae          
    Where from: Red Sea area  North – East Africa (Ethiopian, Sudan); South – West Asia.
    Part used to make oil: Resin of the myrrh shrub or tree  
    Extraction by: Resinoid is extracted by solvent   essential oil by steam distillation
    Chemical make up:
    • Therapeutic actions:
    •  Cammiphora myrrha
    •  1.       Anticatarrhal
    • 2.     anti-inflammatory
    • 3.     antiseptic
    • 4.     carminative
    • 5.     cicatrisant
    • 6.  cooling
    • 7.  emmenagogue
    • 8. expectorant  
    • 9.   fungicidal
    • 10.  sedative
    • 11.  vulnerary
    • 12.  stimulant (digestive, pulmonary)
    • 13.  tonic
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin – chapped skin, fungus
    • infections like athele's foot and ringworm, wounds; good mature skins
    • Nervous – stimulates and revives,
    • relieving aphaty, lack of motivation and general lethargy
    • Reproductive – regulates menstrual
    • cycle; relieves trush
    • Digestive – mouth and gum ulcers,
    • gingivitis; stimulates appetite, aids diarrhoea, flatulence
    • Respiratory – myrrh is good for
    • helping all respiratory problems; anticatharrhal and expectorant thus helps
    • relieve mucus from lungs; antiseptic and anti-inflammatory thus good for all
    • infections, colds, bronchitis and glandular fever. 
    • When not to use   
    •  Not recommended for use during the
    • pregnancy or in high concentrations.
    • NB: it takes more than 24 hours to
    • eliminate myrrh from the body thus it should not be used on a regular or
    • prolonged basis
    •   The one thing to remember!!!
    •  Myrrh   is a healer, especially good for healing wounds, mouth and gum problems and infections of the respiratory system.
  29. Neroli (Orange blossom) Middle to base note            
    Botanical name: Citrus aurantium
     Family:   Rutaceae            
     Where from: 
    Mediterranean (Italy, France, Spain) parts
    of North Africa and China
     Part used to make oil: Orange blossom flowers 
    Extraction by: Solvent extraction or steam distillation 
    Chemical make up: Alcohol
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1.   Antidepressant 
    • 2.    antispasmodic
    • 3.    cicatrisant
    • 4.    detoxifying
    • 5.    relaxing
    • 6.    sedative
    • 7.   tonic 
    • uplifting

    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    •  Skin – helps cell regeneration (
    • tonic) thus benefiting dry, mature skins, scars and sretch marks, thread
    • veins, eczema and psoriasis
    • Nervous – lifts depression,
    • relieves stress-related conditions, especially insomnia, and anxiety; eases
    • neuralgia, calms and soothes nerves and nerve endings
    • Circulatory – tonic for
    • circulation(especially varicose veins) and eases palpitations (due to calming
    • effect)
    • Reproductive – relieves PMT
    • When not to use 
    • Neroli is not known to have any
    • contraindications     
    • The one thing to remember!!! 
    • Tonic for the nervous system. It rejuvenates body and soul!

  30.  Orange bitter        note            
    Botanical name: citrus aurantium
    Family:  Rutaceae        
    Where from: Mediterranean, USA, South America 
    Part used to make oil: peel
    Extraction  by: expression
    Chemical make up: Monoterpene
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1. Astringent   
    • 2.   antiseptic 
    • 3.    anti-inflammatory
    • 4.  sedative  
    • 5. tonic   
    • 6.  carminative  
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • 1.  Skin – oily and congested
    • skins
    • 2. Nervous – stress, nervous
    • tension, and tension headaches
    • 3.  Circulatory – water
    • retention, PALPITATIONS
    • 4. Respiratory – BRONCHITIS
    • Immune – colds and flue
    •  When not to use 
    • Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitising.
    • It should not be used before going into the sun as it is phototoxic 
    • The one thing to remember!!! A
    • bright, sunny oil – orange bitter is a tonic to the nervous system and useful
    • for stress-related conditions.

  31. Orange (sweet)              note   
    Botanical name: citrus sinensis
    Family:   Rutaceae            properties
    Where from: Native to china, but extensively grown in California, Florida, and Mediterranean countries (france Spain, Italy)
     Part used to make oil: peel
     Extraction by: 
    Expression or steam distillation, but the
    distilled oil is poorer in quality.
      Chemical make up:  monoterpene
    • Therapeutic actions: 
    • 1.     Antidepressant
    • 2.   antispasmodic
    • 3. antiviral
    • 4.     hypotensive
    • 5. sedative
    • 6.     stimulant (digestive,
    • lymphatic)
    • 7.     stomachic
    • 8.     uplifting
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    •    citrus    sinensis
  32.    1.    Nervous – provokes positive
    • outlook, refreshes the mind, lifts and relieves depression, tension and
    • stress.
    • 2.  Circulatory – hypotensive
    • thus lowers blood pressure
    • Lymphatic – relieves oedema and
    • fluid retension
    • 3.    Digestive – calms the
    • stomach, aids peristalsis, helps relieve digestive problems such us diarrhoea
    • and constipation
    • 4.    Immune – helps protect
    • against infections, cold and flu
    • 5. Skin – skin tonic for dull,
    • oily skins; refreshes and detoxifies.
    • When not to use !!Expressed sweet orange oil is safe but the distilled one causes phototoxicity 
    • The one thing to remember!!! 
    • Sweet orange is a member of the citrus family, This fruit only grow naturally in
    • sunny hot countries and the oils from them are like a burst of sunshine:
    • uplifting, worm, bright, restorative.

  33. Patchouli           note            
    Botanical name: Pogostemon cablin
    Family:    Lamiaceae (Labiatae)    properties
    Where from: Asia: Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, India
    Part used to make oil: Dried leaves
    Extraction by:Steam distillation
    Chemical make up:
    • Therapeutic actions:
    •  1.    Antidepressant
    • 2.    anti-inflammatory
    • 3.    cytophilactic
    • 4.    diuretic
    • 5.   fungicidal 
    • 6.    sadative
    • 7.    tonic
    • 8.    antimicrobial
    • 9.    nervine
    • 10.  prophylactic
    • 11.  uplifting
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    •  Skin – helps celll growth, scarred
    • tissue, chapped skin; insect repellent
    • Nervous system – relieves
    • stress-related conditions, lethargy, anxiety
    • Digestive – stimulant; helps peristalsis,
    • aids weight loss
    •  When not to use 
    • Should be used in small concentrations
    • since it may cause phototoxicity.
    •    The one thing to remember!!!
    •  Patchouli is both uplifting and sedative: a small amount is stimulating nervous system;
    • a large amount is relaxing and soothing.

  34.   Pepper (black)              note            

    Botanical name: Piper nigrum
    Family:   Piperaceae            
    Where from: India, Indonesia, Greece
     Part used to make oil: Dried berries
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
     Chemical make up:
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1.   Analgesic
    • 2.  antispasmodic  
    • 3.    rubefacient
    • 4.    tonic
    • 5.    stomachic

    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Muscular – tonic for aches and
    • pains; can improve performance if used before sporting activities
    • Circulatory / Lymphatic – warming
    • thus stimulates circulation (thus preventing and relieving chilblains) and
    • lymphatic system
    • Nervous – stimulates digestion and
    • appetite; relieves bowel problems and constipation by aiding peristalsis
    • Respiratory – catarrh, coughs and
    • colds
    • When not to use 
    • Can be irritating and should not be used
    • neat on the skin. It also is incompatible with homeopathic treatmants. Use in
    • low concentrations
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    •  Black pepper warms the blood, thus relieving aches and pains in the muscles and
    • stimulating the appetite.

  35.    Peppermint        note            

    Botanical name: Mentha piperita
    Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)  
    Where from: Worldwide, most peppermint comes from USA 
    Part used to make oil: Leaves and flowers
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
     Chemical make up:
    • Therapeutic actions:
    •  1.    Analgesic
    • 2.    antiseptic
    • 3.    antispasmodic
    • 4.    antiviral
    • 5.    antipruritic
    • 6.    carminative
    • 7.    cephalic
    • 8.    cooling
    • 9.    digestive tonic
    • 10.  expectorant
    • 11.  febrifuge
    • 12.  stimulant
    • 13.  stomachic
    • 14.  vermifuge
    • 15.  uplifting
    • 16.  vasoconstrictive
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :  
    • Skin – vasoconstrictor thus
    • reduces inflammation, itching; cooling effect on sunburn, hot flushes
    • Nervous – wakes up and refreshes
    • the mind, improves concentration, helps mental fatigue, headaches and
    • depression; cools and calms anger, hysteria, nervous trembling
    • Digestive – effective for
    • flatulence, indigestion, nusea, travel sickness
    • Respiratory – decongests blocked
    • sinuses, relieves asthma, cold and flu symptoms; encourages perspiration thus
    • reducing fever
    • General – relieves pain and cools
    • – headaches, migraines, toothache, aching feet.
    •  When not to use 
    • Counteracts the benefits of homoeopathic
    • remedies and should not be used with, or even stored near them. It should
    • also be avoided late in a day and by insomniacs since it refreshes the mind,
    • waking you up!
    •    The one thing to remember!!! 
    • Peppermint is cool, refreshing and good for digestion.
  36. Petitgrain          Tope    note            

    Botanical name: Citrus aurantium
    Family:    Rutaceae           
    Where from:
    Mediterranean countries, especially
    France, parts of North Africa; Paraguay.
    Part used to make oil:
    The leaves and twigs
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical make up: Ester
    • Therapeutic actions:
    •  1. Antidepressant   
    • 2.  antiseptic  
    • 3. antispasmodic   
    • 4.    digestive
    • 5.  relaxing  
    • 6.   stimulant (digestive,
    • nervous) 
    • 7.   nervine 
    • 8.   tonic 
    • 9. uplifting   
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • 1.  Nervous – soothes anxiety,
    • tension, hyper activity; sedates nervous spasms and physical problems
    • relating to this such as rapid heartbeat and breathing, insomnia, fatigue
    • 2.    Digestive – calms stomach
    • muscles, relieves indigestion, upset stomach and painful digestion
    • 3.    Skin – tonic for greasy skin
    • and hair
    • 4.   immune – mild stimulant,
    • which helps body recover after illness
  37. When not to use 
    • Petitgrain has no known ill-effects.
    • The one thing to remember!!! Petitgrain is a great stress-reliever and anti-depressant.

  38. Rose (cabbage)       
    Middle      note    
    Cabbage rose is sometimes known as French rose. Distilled rose oil is also known as rose otto       

    Botanical name: Rosa centifolia
    Family:    Rosaceae           

    Where from: Morocco, France, Italy and Tunisia. It is also grown in China.
    Part used to make oil:  Flower petals
    Extraction by: 
    The best oil comes from direct
    (water)/steam distillation.
    However, a lot of rose oil is solvent
    extracted, producing a concentrate and then absolute.

    Chemical make up: Alcohol
    • Therapeutic actions:
    •  1.  Antidepressant  
    • 2.   antiseptic 
    • 3.    antispasmodic
    • 4.   antiviral 
    • 5.    astringent
    • 6.    bactericidal
    • 7.    depurative
    • 8.   emmenagogue 
    • 9.    haemostatic
    • 10.  relaxing
    • 11.  sedative
    • 12.  laxative
    • 13.  tonic
    • 14.  vulnerary
    • Conditions/systems
    • able to benefit :
    • 1.  Reproductive – regulates
    • menstrual problems and uterine disorders, calms PMT, increases seamen
    • production; relaxing thus helping impotence/frigidity
    • 2.  Skin – anti-inflammatory,
    • tonic and astringent effect on broken capillaries and thread veins; dry,
    • mature skin and wrinkles; eczema
    • 3.  Nervous – rose oil is a very
    • effective anti-depressant and also helps relieve symptoms of nervous tension
    • and stress as well as insomnia; stimulates positive emotions, thus combating
    • jealousy, sadness, grief; Balancing
  39. When not to use 
    • Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitising
    • and has no known contraindications. (it may irritate the skin if solvent
    • extracted)
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    •  Cabbage and Damask rose have very similar properties but cabbage rose is said to be
    • more aphrodisiac and more relaxing than damask.

  40. Rose (damask)     Middle      note 
    sometimes known as bulgarian rose, like jasmine is one of the most
    expensive and the best oils. However it can be used sparingly to great effects
    so it might be worth the investment. Distilled rose oil is known as rose

    Botanical name: Rosa damascena
    Family:    Rosaceae           properties
    Where from: Native to asia but mostly cultivated in Bulgaria, Turkey and France
    Part used to make oil:   Flower petals
    Extraction by: The best oil comes from direct
    (water)/steam distillation.
    However, a lot of rose oil is solvent
    extracted, producing a concentrate and then absolute.
    Chemical make up: Alcohol
    • Therapeutic actions:
    •  1.  Antidepressant  
    • 2.    antiseptic
    • 3.    antispasmodic
    • 4.    antiviral
    • 5.    astringent
    • 6.    bactericidal
    • 7.    depurative
    • 8.    emmenagogue
    • 9.    haemostatic
    • 10.  relaxing
    • 11.  sedative
    • 12.  laxative
    • 13.  tonic
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • 1.    Reproductive – regulates
    • menstrual problems and uterine disorders, calms PMT, increases seamen
    • production; relaxing thus helping impotence/frigidity
    • 2.    Nervous – rose oil is a very
    • effective anti-depressant and also helps relieve symptoms of nervous tension
    • and stress as well as insomnia; stimulates positive emotions, thus combating
    • jealousy, sadness, grief; Balancing
    • 3. Skin – anti-inflammatory,
    • tonic and astringent effect on broken capillaries and thread veins; dry,
    • mature skin and wrinkles; eczema

    • When not to use 
    • Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitising
    • and has no known contraindications. (it may irritate the skin if solvent
    • extracted)

    • The one thing to remember!!!
    •  Damask rose is especially effective for emotional and reproductive problems. It is
    • also said to be an aphrodisiac!
  41. Rosemary          note            

    Botanical name: Rosmarinus officinalis

    Family:  Lamiaceae (Labiatae)           properties: is form the same plant family as
    lavender and like its relative, it has many uses in aromatherapy.
    Where from: All over the world but it comes mainly from mediterranean countries such as France, Spain and Italy
    Part used to make oil:  The leaves, flowers of the herb
     Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical make up:
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1. Analgesic   
    • 2.   antiseptic 
    • 3.    antispasmodic
    • 4.   antiviral 
    • 5.   astringent 
    • 6.    cephalic
    • 7.    diuretic
    • 8.    emmenagogue
    • 9.    hypertensive
    • 10.  rubefacient
    • 11.  stimulant
    • 12.  nervine
    • 13.  vulnerary
    • 14.  cordial
    • 15.  tonic
    • 16.  uplifting
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin – effective astringent, eases
    • puffiness and clears congested dull skin
    • Skeletal – joint problems
    • including arthritis, rheumatism, bursistis
    • Muscular – pain relief for
    • sport/exercise related injuries/pains
    • Circulatory – rubefacient thus
    • stimulates poor circulation, tonifies heart, improves low blood preassure
    • Nervous – refreshes and clears the
    • mind; improves and aids memory, relieves mental fatigue and lethargy; also
    • activates the brain and stimulates the nerve endings (useful for strike
    • patients) relieves heacdaches, migraines and vertigo
    • Respiratory – flu, colds,
    • sinusitis, chest infections
    • General – diuretic thus aids fluid
    • retention and obesity
    • When not to use 
    • During pregnancy or for those with
    • epilepsy or high blood pressure
    • The one thing to remember!!!
    •  Rosemary,
    • like lavender is a good all round oil, stimulating both mind and body
    • especially usefull for PMT, circulatory problems and infections.
  42. Sandalwood             note            

    Botanical name: Santalum Album
    Family:  Santalaceae       Sandalwood has been used for
    medical and therapiutic purposes for over 4000 years
    Where from:East India, Sri Lanka and Australia
    Part used to make oil: Timber, inner heartwood and roots
    Extraction by: Water or stem distillation
    Chemical make up:
    Therapeutic actions:

    • 1.    Antidepressant
    • 2.    antispasmodic
    • 3.    antiseptic
    • 4.    bactericidal
    • 5. cicatrisant   
    • 6.    expectorant
    • 7.   relaxing 
    • 8.  sadative  
    • 9.   tonic 
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :  
    • Skin- soothes dry, irritated,
    • chapped skins; eczema; sensitive skins, calms redness of broken capillaries
    • and reduces high colouring
    • Nervous – soothes tension,
    • relieves stress, insomnia and anxiety
    • Respiratory – throat and chest
    • infections, bronchitis; sedates dry, tickly coughs
    • Urinary – infections, cytitis,
    • cleansing effect on kidneys.
    •  When not to use 
    • Has no known contraindications
    •  The one thing to remember!!!
    • Sandalwood is widely used in perfumes and is relaxing and soothing oil, especially good
    • for calming irritations, whether of the nerves, skin or chest. Santalum
    • spicatum is sometimes used in place of santalum album. It has simillar
    • properties but is especially useful for its anti-inflammatory and antiviral
    • effects.

  43. Thyme      note            

    Botanical name: Thymus vulgaris
    Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)      
    Where from:  Mediterranean, Southern Italy
    Part used to make oil:  Fresh or dried leaves and flowers
    Extraction by: By water or steam distillation
    Chemical make up:
    • Therapeutic actions:
    • 1.Antiseptic    
    • 2.  antifungal  
    • 3. antispasmodic   
    • 4. astringent   
    • 5. digestive   
    • 6.  expectorant  
    • 7. emmenagogue   
    • 8.  hypertensive  
    • 9. mucoylitic   
    • 10.  nervine
    • 11.  stimulant
    • 12.  tonic
    •  Conditions/systems able to benefit :
    • Skin – acne, oily skin, boils.
    • Muscular – Arthritis, sports
    • injuries, and rheumatism
    • Circulatory – stimulates blood
    • flow, thought to raise blood presure
    • Nervous – Headaches, stress,
    • nervetonic, and mental stimulant
    • Digestive  - Improves appetite, eases flatulence
    • Immune – stimulating, tonic for
    • system
    • Respiratory – coughs, colds,
    • catarrh, bronchitis, flu.
    •  When not to use  
    • Thyme is non-toxic and non-irritating, but
    • may cause sensitivity in some people. Use in low dilutions. Avoid in
    • pregnancy or cases of hypertension
    •   The one thing to remember!!!
    • Thyme is powerful and antiseptic useful for stimulating the immune system.

  44. Vetiver                  note            

    Botanical name: Vetiveria zizanoides
    Family:  Poaceae (Gramineae)      
    Where from: Native to South India and Indonesia, also cultivated thrughout the South America, Reunion, Java and Haiti 
    Part used to make oil: The roots and rootlets which are washed,
    dried and chopped. 
    Extraction by: Steam distillation
    Chemical make up:
    • Therapeutic actions: Vetiveria zizanoides
    • 1.Relaxing    
    • 2.   rubefacient 
    • 3. sedative   
    • 4.  vermifuge  
    • 5.nervine    
    • 6.tonic    
    • Conditions/systems able to benefit :  Vetiveria zizanoides
  45. Skin – helps heal acne scars
    • Muscular – eases aches and pains
    • Circulatory – increases blood
    • flow, mild rubefacient
    • Nervous – the moind benefits the
    • most from vetiver; it calms the central nervous system, reduces tension,
    • worry, anxiety and stress-related symptoms; relieves insomnia and nervous
    • debility
    • Reproductive - tonic
    •  When not to use 
    • No known contraindications 
    • The one thing to remember!!! 
    • Vetiver is the oil of tranquillity. It has a tranquillising, grounding effect,
    • bringing the user back down to earth, helping relaxation and the release of
    • mental and physical exhaustion.