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- a small number of people with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for pursuing a common purpose, achieving performance goals, and improving interdependent work processes.
Effective work teams develop norms about the quality and timeliness of job performance, absenteeism, safety, and honest expression of ideas and opinions.
Cohesiveness is another important characteristic of work teams.
Understanding the characteristics of work teams is essential for making teams an effective part of an organization. Therefore, in this section you'll learn about 3.1 team norms, 3.2 team cohesiveness, 3.3 team size, 3.4 team conflict, and 3.5 the stages of team development.
- training them members to do all or most of the jobs performed by the other team members.
Firms must also provide team members with the technical training they need to do their jobs, particularly if they are being cross-trained to perform all of the different jobs on the team.
After extensive cross -training , however, each team member can now do all three jobs.96 Cross -training is less appropriate for teams of highly skilled workers. For instance, it is unlikely that a group of engineers, computer programmers, and systems analysts would be cross-trained for each other's jobs.
-behavior in which team members withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work
Teams and teamwork have the disadvantages of initially high turnover andsocial loafing (especially in large groups)
Team goals provide a clear focus and purpose, reduce the incidence of social loafing , and lead to higher team performance 93 percent of the time
incidence of social loafing is much higher in large teams.
Types of Teams and Work Groups
Team type: permanent, temporary, functional, cross-functional
Traditional Work Group: group composed of two or more people who work together to achieve a shared goal; do not have direct responsibility or control over their work
employee involvement team: team that provides advice or makes suggestions to management concerning specific issues; no authority in decision making
semi-autonomous work group: group that has the authority to make decisions and solve problems related to the major tasks of producing a product or service; have authority to make decisions and solve problems related to major tasks required to produce a product or service
self-managing team: team that manages and controls all of the major tasks of producing a product or service; manage and control ALL major tasks related to production of product or service
self-designing team: team that has the characteristics of self-managing teams but also controls team design, work tasks, and team membership; can control and change design of teams, tasks they do, and how and when they do them, and membership of teams
cross-functional teams: team composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization; attack problems from multiple perspectives and generate more ideas and alternative solutions
virtual teams: team composed of geographical and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who use telecommunication and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task; rarely meet face to face; often temporary set up to accomplish specific task
project team: team created to complete specific one-time projects or tasks within a limited time; often used to develop new products, significantly improve existing products, roll out new information systems, or build new factories or offices.
- the ability to change organizational structures, policies, and practices in order to meet stretch goals
informally agreed-on standards that regulate behavior
let members know what is expected of them
one of most powerful influences on work behavior
associated with stronger organizational commitment, more trust in management, and stronger job and organizational satisfaction
Types of conflict
c-type (cognitive): problem-related differences of opinion
a-type (affective): emotional reactions that can occur when disagreements become personal rather than professional
Forming: is the initial stage of team development. This is the getting-acquainted stage in which team members first meet each other, form initial impressions, and try to get a sense of what it will be like to be part of the team. Some of the first team norms will be established during this stage as team members begin to find out what behaviors will and won't be accepted by the team. During this stage, team leaders should allow time for team members to get to know each other, set early ground rules, and begin to set up a preliminary team structure.
Storming: Conflicts and disagreements often characterize the second stage of team development, storming. As team members begin working together, different personalities and work styles may clash.Team members become more assertive at this stage and more willing to state opinions. This is also the stage when team members jockey for position and try to establish a favorable role for themselves on the team.In addition, team members are likely to disagree about what the group should do and how it should do it. Team performance is still relatively low, given that team cohesion is weak and team members are still reluctant to support each other. Since teams that get stuck in the storming stage are almost always ineffective, it is important for team leaders to focus the team on team goals and on improving team performance. Team members need to be particularly patient and tolerant with each other in this stage.
Norming: team members begin to settle into their roles as team members. Positive team norms will have developed by this stage, and teammates should know what to expect from each other. Petty differences should have been resolved, friendships will have developed, and group cohesion will be relatively strong. At this point, team members will have accepted team goals, be operating as a unit, and, as indicated by the increase in performance, be working together effectively. This stage can be very short.
Performing: performance improves because the team has finally matured into an effective, fully functioning team. At this point, members should be fully committed to the team and think of themselves as members of a team and not just employees. Team members often become intensely loyal to one another at this stage and feel mutual accountability for team successes and failures. Trivial disagreements, which can take time and energy away from the work of the team, should be rare. At this stage, teams get a lot of work done, and it is fun to be a team member.