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ACL resists what motion?
anterior translation of the tibia
location of ACL
lateral femoral condyle to medial tibia
PCL resists what motion?
posterior translation of the tibia
location of PCL
medial femoral condyle to lateral tibia
location of ligament of wrisberg
posteriorly to the lateral meniscus and extends to medial condyle
location of transverse ligament
anterior margins of menisci
location of interosseous membrane
attaches tibia to fibula
LCL resists what?
varus stress of the tibia
MCL resists what?
valgus stress of the tibia
purpose of bursae
protect tendons from friction
what attaches to Gerdy's tubercle?
what attaches to the pes anserine?
Full ROM of the knee per AMA?
Functional ROM of knee?
Grade 1 or 1st degree Sprain presents with what?
- no joint laxity
- mild pain and tenderness
Grade 2 or 2nd degree sprain presents with what?
- torn or stretched
- moderate pain
- point tenderness
- some fibers torn and stretched
Grade 3 or 3rd degree sprain presents with what?
- severe pain at time of injury
- complete tear or avulsion of tissue
Joint hypomobility is typically associated with what disease?
Functional limitations of Joint hypomobility include:
- decreased ROM
- muscle inhibition
- impaired balance
management of Joint hypomobility include:
- pt education
- maintain mobility
- joint mobs
- isometric strengthening
- strengthen ankle and hip muscles
types of articular cartilage treatments:
- autograft transplant
- chondrocyte implantation
- allograft transplant
management of articular cartilage defects include:
- WB restrictions
- protective bracing in extension
- low impact activities 6 months post
- hip impact activities 8-12 months post
primary goal of TKA
- decrease pain
- improve function
- improve quality of life
types of TKA
- fully constrained
Management of TKA
- WB restrictions dependent upon surgical technique
- increase ROM 0-90*
- decrease pain & swelling
Alignment associated with PFD is influenced by:
- quadriceps line of pull
- ligamentous, capsular, retinaculum
Dynamic alignment concerning PFD
quadriceps line of pull
passive alignment concerning PFD:
ligamentous, capsular, retinaculum
IT band tightness prevents what?
medial glide of patella
pronation of the foot increases what?
weakness of hip abduction and ER allow for what?
excessive adduction and IR
weakness of the VMO allow for what?
excessive lateral patellar glide
painful lesions associated with PFD include:
- IT band syndrome
what is there minimal contact between the patella and femur?
full knee extension due to compression
conservative tx approach to PFD:
- pt education
- patellar mobs (medially)
- McConnell taping
- VMO stretching
- stretching hams and IT band
surgical tx for PFD
- soft tissue procedures
- osseous procedures
- articular cartilage procedures
post-op tx of PFD
- control pain and edema
- restore ROM
- functional activities
- strengthen entire limb
ACL injury is typically caused by
- contact at lat surface causing valgus stress
- rotational injury
- contact at anterior proximal tibia with flexed knee
- posterior tibial translation
- contact lateral knee causing valgus stress
- typically associated with unhappy triad
contact at medial knee causing varus stress
non-op management of ligamentous injuries
- max protection phase
- mod protection phase
- min protection phase
max protection phase of ligamentous injury includes:
- assistive device training
mod protection phase of ligamentous injury include:
- closed chain ex
- walk/jog/mini squats
min protection phase of ligamentous injury include:
- sports specific drills
Types of ACL repair
- artificial/ synthetic ligaments
harvest sites for autograft repair of ACL
- patellar tendon
- semitendinosus/gracilis tendon
harvest site for allograft repair of ACL