Blood Vessel and Blood Pressure Pathophysiology

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Author:
MarieElise
ID:
246192
Filename:
Blood Vessel and Blood Pressure Pathophysiology
Updated:
2013-11-30 18:49:38
Tags:
Pathophys
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Description:
Blood vessel and BP
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  1. Perfusion
    delivery of blood to tissues
  2. ischemia
    lack of blood flow causes lack of nutrients/oxygen
  3. infarction
    • death of a contiguous area of tissue from lack of blood flow
    • (lack of blood flow --> lack of oxygen/nutrients)
  4. thrombus
    stationary blood clot in vessels or heart
  5. embolus
    • detached, traveling mass in vessel
    • may be solid, liquid or gaseous?
  6. hematoma
    collection of blood outside of vessels
  7. sclerosis
    hardening of tissue
  8. phlebitis
    inflammation of veins
  9. peripheral vascular disease
    • huge category of vascular disease
    • affects both veins and arteries
  10. what happens upstream from an arterial obstruction?
    • more obstruction
    • blood will be redirected to other arteries
  11. what happens downstream from an arterial obstruction?
    • less blood flow
    • --> less oxygen/nutrients --> ischemia
    • -->less tissue perfusion
    • --> necrosis/infarction
  12. what happens upstream from a venous obstruction?  why?
    • venous congestion --> edema
    • increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
  13. what happens upstream from a lymphatic obstruction?  why?
    • lymphedema (massive edema)
    • buildup of protein-rich fluid
    • --> increased colloid osmotic pressure in interstitial space
  14. three factors that increase risk of thrombus formation
    • stasis of blood
    • rough endothelium/endothelial damage
    • hypercoagulability
  15. how can atrial fibrulation increase risk for thrombus formation?
    heart quivers instead of contracting --> stasis of blood  --> clot
  16. how does rough endothelium cause thrombus formation?
    good place for platelets to stick to and start clotting
  17. what factors can cause hypercoagulability?
    cancer (cancer cells make tissue factor that promotes clotting)

    oral contraceptives

    dehydration

    cigarettes
  18. the three factors that can cause thrombus formation are called _________
    Virchow's triad
  19. Virchow's triad is made up of _______, _______ and ______, and increases risk of _________ in ______, ______ and ______
    • stasis of blood
    • rough endothelium/endothelial damage
    • hypercoagulability

    • increase risk of thrombus formation 
    • in arteries, veins and heart chambers
  20. Thrombophlebitis
    inflammation in a vein from a clot
  21. 3 signs/symptoms of superficial vein thrombophlebitis along course of vein, 
    one general s/s
    • Redness
    • Heat
    • Tenderness
    • Aching
  22. Why doesn't edema occur in superficial vein thrombophlebitis?
    blood is diverted via communicating veins to deeper veins
  23. Signs/symptoms in lower extremity of deep vein thrombophlebitis
    • generalized edema of extremity
    • increased circumference of extremity
    • possibly distension of superficial veins
  24. why does edema occur in deep vein thrombophlebitis?
    • valves in communicating veins only go one way, so the blood cannot be shunted into superficial veins
    • many veins empty into deep veins, which increases the pressure in them
  25. other generalized symptoms of deep vein thrombophlebitis
    • pain, tenderness
    • low grade fever
    • may be asymptomatic
  26. which kind of vein thrombus can cause a pulmonary embolism?  describe its pathway to the lungs
    • deep vein thrombus
    • loosens in legs (systemic circ)
    • --> right heart
    • --> lungs
    • -->pulmonary embolism
  27. Signs/Symptoms of pulmonary embolism
    • blood flow from lungs is blocked:
    • sudden dyspnea (shortness of breath)
    • lightheadedness/faintness
    • +/- chest pain
  28. Valvular incompetence
    valves don't shut properly
  29. superficial, raised, tortuous veins
    varicose veins
  30. what causes varicose veins?
    valvular incompetence
  31. chronic venous insufficiency
    valvular incompetence in deep veins of legs

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