SS 4 (notable buildings)

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SS 4 (notable buildings)
2013-11-10 22:54:08

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  1. Pantheon (Rome)
    • -largest dome of the ancient world
    • -built by Romans in 123 A.D.
    • -lower part tends to crack because of -circumferential tensile stresses
    • -dome walls are about 20ft thick at the bottom
    • -underside was coffered
  2. Hagia Sophia (Constantinople, now Istanbul)
    • -in Constantinople (now Istanbul)
    • -completed in 537 A.D.
    • -architects Anthemius and Isidorus
    • -dedicated to glory of church and state
    • -main dome was shallow and supported by four pillars, through pendentives and arches that rose from the pillars
    • -arches resisted both vertical forces and outward thrusts from the dome, however did not provide sufficient buttressing and a portion collapsed in 558 A.D.
    • -dismantled and rebuilt with a 20ft greater rise, reducing the outward thrust
    • -in 1847 an iron tie was placed around the base of the dome to resist tension; no further damage occurred and building still survives today
  3. Dome of the Florence Cathedral
    • -dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence -designed by the great Renaissance architect Filippo Brunelleschi
    • -completed in 1436
    • -2 masonry domes: thick inner shell and a thinner outer shell
    • -built in a series of circumferential iron chains to act as tension rings and hold the dome in equilibrium
    • -no use of temporary shoring, a feat unparalleled in its time
  4. Crystal Palace (London)
    • -great exhibition of 1851 in London
    • -largest display of man's progress ever assembled up to that time
    • -housed in an immense prefabricated glass and cast iron structure
    • -designed by Joseph Paxton
    • -more than a third of a mile long, enclosed nearly a million square feet
    • -was fabricated in only 6 months
  5. Fallingwater (Bear Run, Pennsylvania)
    • -Kaufmann House
    • -completed in 1936
    • -become one of the best-known houses in the country
    • -3-story masonry structure, featuring 6 reinforced concrete terraces which cantilever over a natural waterfall
  6. Nervi's Airplane Hangars
    • -great Italian engineer Pier Luigi Nervi
    • -build for Italian Air Force between 1936 and 1939 had lamella roofs formed by short prefabricated reinforced concrete members connected at their joints
    • -towards the end of World War II, the German army blew the supports, roofs fell almost entirely intact
  7. Johnson Wax Building (Racine, Wisconsin)
    • -1939 by Frank Lloyd Wright (his most famous structure)
    • -rounded exterior walls consist of horizontal bands of brick punctuated by strips of glass tubing
    • -slender mushroom-shaped concrete columns that flare out at the top to support the roof
  8. Yale University Skating Rink (Connecticut)
    • -designed by Eero Saarinen
    • -completed in 1958
    • -steel cables are hung from a central reinforced concrete arch
    • -outer ends of the cables are anchored to heavy curved perimeter walls
    • -roof is wood, the weight of which partially stabilizes the cables
  9. Palazzetto Dello Sport (Rome)
    • -means Little Sports Palace in english
    • -designed by Pier Luigi Nervi
    • -for the 1960 Rome Olympics
    • -ribbed concrete shell dome, supported by 36 Y-shaped concrete buttresses which resist the forces at the edge of the shell
  10. Dulles International Airport (Washington D.C.)
    • -completed in 1962
    • -Eero Saarinen designer
    • -uses mobile lounge separating the terminals from the airplanes
    • -terminal is expressed by a single compact building
    • -concrete roof is supported by steel cables that are suspended between huge concrete columns that lean outward to balance the inward pull of the cables
  11. CBS Building (New York) (aka Black Rock)
    • -reinforced concrete skyscraper
    • -completed in 1964
    • -designed by Eero Saarinen and engineered by Paul Weidlinger
    • -42-story structure resists lateral forces by both an inner core and perimeter walls, which consist of concrete piers 5ft long spaced 5ft apart
    • -building's verticality is emphasized by the granite-clad triangular piers, which extend uninterrupted from below street level to the top of the building
  12. Toronto City Hall
    • -in 1958, Finnish architect Viljo Revell won the competition for design
    • -completed in 1965
    • -2 curved shapes buildings, each tower is a huge curved shell that provides strength and rigidity against the overturning forces caused by wind or earthquake
  13. Houston Astrodome
    • -first of dome structures
    • -completed in 1965, largest enclosed dome stadium ever constructed, roofed by the largest dome ever built
    • -covering 9-1/2 acres, steel lattice dome is 710ft in diameter and rises 208ft over the playing field
    • -weighs less than 30lbs/sf, 1/20th of the weight of Brunelleschi's inner dome in Florence
  14. First National Bank (Chicago)
    • -special type of rigid frame called a "super-frame" or "mega-frame" consisting of very deep, stiff horizontal truss or girder wherever a mechanical floor occurs, about 15 to 20 stories apart, connected at each end to a large exterior column
    • -interior columns and horizontal girders at other levels form a secondary rigid frame
    • -used in the 60-story building
    • -designed by Perkins and Will with C.F.Murphy Associates
    • -completed in 1966
    • -building has slender profile that tapers gracefully to a wider base to resist wind overturning forces more effectively
  15. John Hancock Building (Chicago) (aka Big John)
    • -expresses its structure through its tapered form and enormous exposed exterior X-Bracing
    • -designed by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill
    • -completed in 1968
    • -gigantic trussed tube, very efficient in resisting wind forces
    • -overall dimension of the building is utilized to resist overturning forces, while the truss members resist shear by direct stress, rather than bending
    • -for a time, this 100-story multiuse structure was the tallest building in Chicago, a distinction it has since relinquished to the Sears Tower (Willis Tower)
  16. Knights of Columbus Building (New Haven, Connecticut)
    • -26-story building
    • -designed by Kevin Roche and John Dinkeloo
    • -completed in 1969
    • -4 corner towers, constructed of concrete with dark brick veneer, support the main 80-ft long horizontal steel girders, which in turn support the steel floor structure
    • -towers resist horizontal wind or earthquake forces by acting as huge tubes which cantilever from the foundation
    • -within the towers are service elements such as stairs, toilets, and mechanical shafts, and the 6-elevators are contained in a core at the bldg's center
  17. US Pavilion at Expo '70 (Osaka, Japan)
    • -100,000sf inflatable roof made of a special vinyl membrane, with stiffening steel cables anchored to a concrete compression ring around the perimeter
    • -roof was designed to resist wind forces, as well as the air pressure inside the pavillion
    • -by engineer David Geiger
  18. Munich Olympic Stadium (Germany)
    • -Olympics of 1972
    • -3 new major arenas, largest of which was the Olympic Stadium
    • -roof design by Frei Otto
    • -high-tech tent
    • -series of steel cable nets was stretched between steel masts that were anchored to the ground by steel cables
    • -net surfaces, covered with plexiglas, were shapes of double curvature for stability
    • -design was bold, certainly controversial, giant step forward for tensile structures
  19. Federal Reserve Bank Building (Minneapolis)
    • -suspension bridge concept was used by Gunnar Birkerts in his design
    • -completed in 1972
    • -10-story office building
    • -2 sets of steel cables, draped in the shape of a catenary, support the building's vertical load and are anchored to a pair of concrete towers 275ft apart
    • -facade expresses the structure dramatically by using glass on the inside face of the mullions above the catenary and on the outside face below
  20. World Trade Center (NY)
    • -completed in 1972
    • -1,350ft high, 110 stories, 9 million sf, working population of 50,000
    • -architect Minoru Yamasaki and consulting engineers
    • -structural system comprised of exterior columns only 3ft apart connected by deep spandrels, so that the entire tower became an immense hollow cantilever tube
    • -
  21. Sears Tower (Chicago) (aka Willis Tower)
    • -tubular concept:structure acts like an immense, hollow, tubular column which cantilevers out of its foundation under the action of the wind loads
    • -completed in 1976
    • -designed by Skidmore, Ownings, and Merrill with Fazlur Kahn as chief engineer
    • -bundle of 9 tubes, each 75ft square, placed next to each other to form a pattern of 3 squares in each direction
    • -the square tubes end at varying heights, with only 2 of them extending the full 1,450ft height of the building
    • -one of the most notable achievements in skyscraper design and is currently the tallest building in the US
  22. Petronas Towers (Malaysia)
    • -designed by Cesar Pelli
    • -measured height of 1,483ft for each tower
  23. Taipei 101 (Taipei, Taiwan)
    • -holds title for tallest world's tallest occupied building
    • -completed in 2004
    • -reaches height of 1,671ft
  24. High Tech style
    • -architects collaborate closely with engineers
    • -marriage of architecture and manufacturing
    • -was seen as cold, soulless, and impersonal
    • -all-glass exteriors with steel and concrete structure and stainless steel fittings and cladding are ubiquitous material combination
    • -often matched for transportation facilities
  25. Hartford Civic Center Coliseum (Hartford, CT)
    • -structural failure
    • -1978
    • -steel space frame spanning 300ft
    • -no casualties
  26. C.W. Post Auditorium (Greenvale, NY)
    • -structural failure
    • -1978
    • -steel and aluminum dome spanning 171ft
    • -no casualties
  27. Kemper Memorial Arena (Kansas City, MO)
    • -structural failure
    • -1979
    • -Steel truss roof suspended from steel space frame spanning 324ft
    • -no casualties
  28. Rosemont Horizon Arena (Rosemont, IL)
    • -structural failure
    • -1979
    • -glued laminated arches spanning 290ft
    • -5 dead; 19 injured
  29. Hyatt Regency Hotel (Kansas City, MO)
    • -structural failure
    • -1981
    • -2 suspended walkways
    • -113 dead; 186 injured (most devastating structural collapse ever to take place in the US)