Biology 1 - Chapter 7

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Biology 1 - Chapter 7
2013-11-10 19:27:37
Biology Chapter

Biology 1 - Chapter 7
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  1. Which of the following pathways occurs in the cytosol?
    A) Glycolysis 
    B) Breakdown of Pyruvate to an acetyl-group
    C) Citric Acid Cycle
    D) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    E) All of the above
  2. To break down glucose to CO2 and H2O, which of the following metabolic pathways is "not" involved?
    A) Glycolysis 
    B) Breakdown of Pyruvate to an acetyl-group
    C) Citric Acid Cycle
    D) Photosynthesis
    E) All of the above
  3. The net products of Glycolysis are...
    A) 6 CO2, 4 ATP, 2 NADH
    B) 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH
    C) 2 pyruvate, 4 ATP, and 2 NADH
    D) 2 pyruvate, 4 GTP, 2 CO2
    E) 2 CO2, 4 ATP, and glucose
  4. During glycolysis, ATP is produced by...
    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation 
    B) Substrate-level Phosphorylation
    C) Redox Reactions
    D) All of the above
    E) Both A and B
  5. ATP is made via chemiosmosis during...
    A) Glycolysis 
    B) Breakdown of Pyruvate to an acetyl-group
    C) Citric Acid Cycle
    D) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    E) All of the above
  6. Certain drugs act as Ionophores that cause the mitochondrial membrane to be highly permeable to H+. How would such drugs affect oxidative phosphorylation? 
    A) Movements of electrons down the ETC path would be inhibited.
    B) ATP synthesis would be inhibited
    C) ATP synthesis would be unaffected
    D) ATP synthesis would be stimulated
    E) Both A and B
  7. The source of energy that DIRECTLY drive the synthesis of ATP during oxidative phosphorylation is...
    A) the oxidation of NADH
    B) the oxidation of glucose
    C) the oxidation of pyruvate
    D) the H+ gradient
    E) the reduction of O2
  8. Compared to oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, a key difference in anaerobic respiration in bacteria is...
    A) more ATP is made
    B) ATP is made via only substrate level phosphorylation
    C) O2 is converted to H2O2 rather than H2O
    D) something other than O@ act as a final electron acceptor of the ETC
    E) B and D
  9. When a muscle becomes anaerobic during strenuous activity, why is it necessary to convert pyruvate to lactate?
    A) To decrease NAD+ and increase NADH
    B) To decrease NADH and increase NAD+
    C) To increase NADH and increase NADH+
    D) To decrease NADH and decrease NADH+
    C) to keep oxidative phosphorylation running
  10. What defines a reaction as Exergonic?
    • -Energy is released (negative free energy change)
    • - Favors formation of products
    • -Can be spontaneous
  11. What defines a reaction as Endergonic?
    • -Positive free energy change
    • - Requires addition of energy to drive reaction
    • -Favors formation of reactants
    • -Must be coupled with an Exergonic reaction
  12. What is the formula for cellular respiration of glucose?
    C6H12O6 + 6 O2   --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy intermediate + Heat
  13. Location for Glycolysis?
  14. Location for breakdown of pyruvate?
    In eukaryotes, mitochondrial matrix
  15. Location for citric acid cycle?
    Mitochondrial matrix
  16. Location for Oxidative Phosphorylation?
  17. Briefly explain Glycolysis
    Glucose is broken down to 2 pyruvate molecules, providing a net energy yield of 2 ATP and 2 NADH. The two ATP are synthesized via substrate-level phosphorylation (enzyme directly transfers Pi from an organic molecule to ADP).
  18. Net Energy yield of Glycolysis
    2 ATP and 2 NADH
  19. Phase 1 of Glycolysis
    • Energy investment
    • - Steps 1 through 3
    • - 2 ATP hydrolyzed to create fructose-1, 6 biphosphate
  20. Phase 2 of Glycolysis
    • Cleavage
    • - Steps 4 through 5
    • -6 carbon molecules broken down to two 3 Carbon molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
  21. Phase 3 of Glycolysis
    • Energy Liberation
    • - Steps 6 though 10
    • - 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecules get broken down into 2 pyruvate molecules
  22. What enzyme is a key regulator of Glycolysis?
    Phosphofructokinase (catalyzes the 3rd step).
  23. Briefly explain the Breakdown of Pyruvate
    2 pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondrial matrix, where each one is broken down into an acetyl group (that becomes attached to coA) and one CO2 molecule. For each pyruvate broken down via oxidation, one NADH is made by the reduction of NAD+. 

    So, net yield is 1 NADH for each pyruvate
  24. Main enzyme in the Breakdown of Pyruvate?
    pyruvate dehydrogenase
  25. Briefly explain the Citric Acid Cycle
    • An acetyl group is removed from acetyl CoA and attached to oxaloacetate to make citrate
    • Net yield = 2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH, 1 ATP
  26. What specific molecule is regenerated to start the Citric Acid Cycle over again?
  27. Briefly explain Oxidative Phosphorylation
    Involves two events: (1) The ETC oxidizes NADH or FADH2 and generates an H+ chemical gradient, and (2) this gradient is used by ATP synthase to make ATP via chemiosmosis.
  28. Define Chemiosmosis
    When energy stored in an H+ electrochemical gradient (proton motive force) is used to synthesis ATP from ADP and Pi
  29. Define fermentation
    The breakdown of organic molecules with out net oxidation (without any removal of electrons).