Reflexes and Reaction Time

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Author:
Luimi
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246211
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Reflexes and Reaction Time
Updated:
2013-11-10 20:12:41
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Lab
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Reflexes and reaction time
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  1. Distinguish between motor neurons, sensory neurons and interneurons in terms of their functions.
    • Motor neurons-motor output
    • Sensory neurons-sensory input
    • Interneurons-between motor and sensory; signals
  2. In which animal is the most primitive reflex known?
    A non segmented worm or Caenorhabdilis elegans 
  3. Name the 5 parts of a reflex arc and state what each does.
    • Receptor (sensor)-input
    • Afferent neuron-moves signal towards body
    • Integration Center-1 or more synapses (signals) between neurons
    • Efferent neuron-moves signal away from body
    • Effector-output or response
  4. Distinguish between cranial and spinal reflexes.
    • Cranial involves brain stem
    • Spinal involves spinal cord
  5. A(n) (?) reflex involves skeletal muscle.
    Somatic
  6. A(n) (?) reflex involves smooth muscles or glands.
    Autonomic
  7. A(n) (?) reflex involves 1 synapse (no inter-neuron).
    Monosynaptic
  8. A(n) (?) reflex involves more than 1 synapse (at least one interneuron).
    Polysynaptic
  9. A(n) (?) reflex involves only 1 side of the spinal cord.
    Ipsilateral
  10. A(n) (?) reflex involves both sides of the spinal cord.
    Contralateral
  11. A(n) (?) reflex involves more than one segment of the spinal cord.
    Intersegmental
  12. What is a muscle spindle (anatomically and physiologically)?
    Muscle spindle is an encapsulated receptor found in skeletal muscles that is sensitive to stretch. Non-contracting fibers or intrafusal muscle fibers have dendrites from sensory neurons wrapped around them and these are muscle spindles.
  13. Is the patellar reflex ipsilateral or contralateral?
    Ipsilateral
  14. IS the patellar reflex cranial or spinal?
    Spinal
  15. Is the patellar reflex intersegmetal or not?
    Non-segmented (only one side of spinal cord)
  16. Is the patellar reflex somatic or autonomic?
    Somatic
  17. Is the patellar reflex monosynaptic or polysynaptic?
    Monosynaptic
  18. Why do medical personnel test a patients reflexes?
    To make sure the nervous system is working properly.
  19. What effect should mental distraction have on the patellar reflex?
    Increased
  20. What effect should mental distraction have on the patellar reflex?
    Increased
  21. What effect should fatigue have on the patellar reflex?
    Decreased
  22. Explain how to elicit the Achilles reflex and state what is the expected outcome of the reflex.
    Tap Achilles tendon above heel and foot should plantar flex. This is ipsilateral, involves the spinal cord, it is non-segmented, somatic and monosynaptic.
  23. Explain how to elicit the withdrawal reflex and state what is the expected outcome of the reflex.
    Prick index finger and the hand pricked should be withdrawn and the opposite hand extended. This is contralateral.
  24. Explain how to elicit the Plantar reflex and state what is the expected outcome of the reflex.
    End of a mallet is used to trace a line on bottom of foot to little toe and across to big toes resulting in toes curling up (flexion and adduction).
  25. Differentiate between the Plantar reflex and the Babinski reflex.
    • Plantar will cause the toes to curl up and this is normal for a person over 1.5 years
    • Babinski will cause the toes to flare out and this is normal in a person under 1.5 years
  26. Explain how to elicit the pupiliary reflex and state what is the expected outcome of the reflex. Is this reflex ipsilateral or contralateral or both? Sympathetic or parasympathetic?
    • Shine a light in person's eye causing the pupil to constrict as well as the other pupil.
    • Both ipsilateral and contralateral
    • Parasympathetic
  27. Explain how to elicit the ciliospinal reflex and state what is the expected outcome of the reflex. Is this reflex ipsilateral or contralateral or both? Sympathetic or parasympathetic?
    • Light stroke of skin or hairline on neck and whatever side of the body being stroked, that pupil of the eye will dilate and the other will not.
    • Ipsilateral
    • Sympathetic
  28. What are the four ways that reflexes and reaction times differ?
    • Reaction is voluntary and reflexes are involuntary
    • Reactions can be learned and improved
    • Reflexes are faster than reactions
    • In a reaction, the sensory nerves bring back message from brain to motor nerves. In a reflex, sensory nerves bypass the brain and go up to CNS.
  29. Why is there a lot more variability in peoples' reaction times than reflex times?
    Reactions can be learned and improved whereas reflexes cannot.

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