A&P Chapter 23: Respiratory system

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A&P Chapter 23: Respiratory system
2013-11-11 06:59:31
Respiratory system

Respiratory system
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  1. A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe...
    • 1. Increased thickness of the right ventricle
    • 2. Distension of the pulmonary veins from the right lung

    Not sure which one??
  2. A common site to place a tracheostomy tube is through the ligament that connects the cricoid cartilage to the ________ cartilage.
    • 1. Thyroid cartilage
    • 2. The median cricothyroid cartilage connects the two cartilages and is the placement for the incision
  3. During a choking episode, most foreign objects are lodged in the ________ bronchus due to its larger diameter and steeper angle.
    Right primary brochus
  4. What are type II pneumocytes and what would happen to the lungs if they are damaged?
    • 1. Surfactant producing cells in the alveoli
    • 2. If damaged, there would be a loss of surfactant and increased surface tension of the alveolus would increase resulting in collapse.
  5. What are the 3 types of cells found in the alveolar epithelium?
    • 1. Type I pneumocytes (simple squamous epithelial cells)
    • 2. Type II pneumocytes (surfactant producing cells)
    • 3. Alveolar macrophages
  6. How does pneumonia cause respiratory function to deteriorate?
    • 1. Pneumonia is inflammation in the lobules of the lung
    • 2. Inflammation causes fluid to leak into the alveoli
    • 3. Respiratory bronchioles swell, narrowing the passageways and restricting airflow
  7. What is a pulmonary emoblism?
    1. Blockage of pulmonary blood flow caused by a clot (thrombus) or a similar object
  8. What is a pneumothorax and what happens the the lung as a result of this condition?
    • 1. Puncture of the pleural cavity causes an increase in pressure of the interpleural space
    • 2. Increased pressure causes the associated lung to collapse
  9. What is COPD?
    1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  10. What is emphysema?
    • 1. An obstructive lung disease
    • 2. Elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles
  11. What is the difference between hypoxia and anoxia?
    • 1. Hypoxia: decreased oxygen to the peripheral tissues
    • 2. Anoxia: no oxygen to the peripheral tissues
  12. What is the purpose of bronchiolar smooth muscle?
    1. To dilate and constric the bronchioles to increase or decrease airflow
  13. What is the difference between internal and external inspiration?
    • 1. Internal respiration: the exchange of gases between the circulating blood and cells of the body
    • 2. External respiration: The exchange of gases between alveoli and the circulating blood
  14. What is Boyle's Law?
    • Pressure is inversely proportional to volume:
    • 1. Increased volume=decreased pressure
    • 2. Decreased volume=increased pressure

    (assume constant temperature)
  15. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
    The amount of air you can inhale above the resting tidal volume
  16. Resting Tidal Volume (Vt)
    The amount of air you move in/out of your lumps during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions (usually about 500mL)
  17. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
    Amount of air you can expel above the resting tidal volume
  18. Residual Volume
    The amount of air that remains in your lungs after a maximal exhalation
  19. Inspiratory capacity
    • The amount of air you can draw into your lungs after you have completed a quiet respiratory cycle
    • 1. Vt + IRV
  20. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
    • The amount of air remaining in your lungs after you complete a quiet respiratory cycle
    • 1. ERV + Residual volume
  21. Vital Capacity
    • The maximum amount of air that you can move in/out of your lungs in a single respiratory cycle
    • 1. ERV + Vt + IRV
  22. Total Lung Capacity
    • The total volume of your lungs
    • 1. Vital capacity + Residual volume
  23. Pulmonary ventilation
    • The physical movement of air in/out of the respiratory tract
    • 1. Primary function is to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation
  24. Alveolar ventilation
    • Movement of air in/out of the alveoli
    • 1. Prevents the build up of CO2 in the alveoli
    • 2. Ensures continuous supply of O2 to the bloodstream
  25. What is Henry's Law?
    The amount of a particular gas in a solution is directly proportional of the partial pressure of that gas
  26. What is Dalton's Law?
    Each gas contributes to the total pressure in proportion to its relative abundance
  27. What are the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in the alveolar air and alveolar capillaries?
    • Alveolar Air:
    • 1. PO2: 100mmHg
    • 2. PCO2: 40mmHg

    • Blood entering alveolar capillaries:
    • 1. PO2: 40mmHg
    • 2. PCO2: 45mmHg

    • Blood leaving alveolar capillaries:
    • 1. PO2: 100mmHg
    • 2. PCO2: 40mmHg
    • (same as alveolar air!!)
  28. What are the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in the blood that enters the systemic circuit and the interstitial fluid?
    • Blood entering the systemic circuit:
    • 1. PO2: 95mmHg
    • 2. PCO2: 40mmHg

    • Interstitial Fluid:
    • 1. PO2: 40mmHg
    • 2. PCO2: 45mmHg

    • Blood leaving the interstitial fluid:
    • 1. PO2: 40mmHg
    • 2. PCO2: 45mmHg
    • (same as interstitial fluid!!)
  29. What happens to hemoglobin saturation when pH changes?
    • 1. pH > 7.4: increased saturation (less O2 released)
    • 2. pH < 7.4: decreased saturation (more O2 released)
  30. What happens to hemoglobin saturation when temperature changes?
    • 1. Temp < 38C: increased saturation (less O2 released)
    • 2. Temp > 38C: decreased saturation (more O2 released)
  31. What happens to hemoglobin saturation when BPG changes?

    (BPG is a byproduct on glycolysis in a RBC)
    • 1. Lower BPG: increased saturation (less O2 released)
    • 2. Higher BPG: decreased saturation (more O2 released)
  32. How do the apneustic and pneumotaxic centers of the pons work together during respiration?
    • 1. Apneustic: stimulation increases the intensity on inhalation for about 2 sec, responds to input from vagus regarding amount of lung inflation
    • 2. Pneumotaxic: inhibits the apneustic center after 2 seconds to promote passive or active exhalation, modifies the pace of respiration
  33. What are the respiratory rhythmicity centers in the medulla oblongata and what do they do?
    • Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
    • 1. Inspiratory center: contains lower motor neurons innervating the external intercostal muscles and diaphragm (primary muscles of inhalation)

    • Ventral respiratory group (VRG)
    • 1. Expiratory center: contains neurons that innervate lower motor neurons controlling accessory respiratory muscles involved in exhalation
  34. What are the primary muscles of respiration?
    • 1. Diaphragm
    • 2. External intercostals
  35. What are the accessory muscles of respiration?
    • 1. Sternocleidomastoid
    • 2. Pectoralis minor
    • 3. Serratus anterior
    • 4. Scalene muscles
    • 5. Internal intercostals
    • 6. Transversus thoracic muscles
    • 7. Abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, internal and external oblique, transverse abdominis)