cognition ch 6

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brianklein
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246225
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cognition ch 6
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2013-11-10 21:27:55
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test 2
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  1. the effects of a stimulus on the sensory organs
    sensation
  2. the elaboration and interpretation of a sensory stimulus based on, for example, knowledge of how objects are structured
    perception
  3. the internal surface of the eyes containing photo receptors that convert light to neural signals
    retina
  4. a type of photoreceptor specialized for low levels of light intensity, such as those found at night.
    rod cells
  5. a type of photoreceptor specialized for high levels of light intensity, such as those found during the day, and specialized for the detection of different wavelenghts
    cone cells
  6. the first stage of visual processing in the cortex; the region retains the spatial relationships found on the retina and combines simple visual features into more complex ones
    primary visual cortex (V1)
  7. the region of space that elicits a response from a given neuron
    receptive field
  8. cells that respond to light in a particular orientation
    simple cells
  9. cells that respond to light in a particular orientation but do not respond to single points of light
    complex cells
  10. cells that respond to particular orientations and particular lengths
    hypercomplex cells
  11. cortical blindness restricted to one half of the visual field (associated with damage to the primary visual cortex in one hemisphere)
    hemianopia
  12. cortical blindness restricted to a quarter of the visual field
    quadrantanopia
  13. small region of cortical blindness
    scotoma
  14. symptom in which the patient reports not being able to consciously see stimuli in a particular region but can nevertheless perform visual discrimination accurately
    blindsight
  15. a region of extrastriate cortex associated with color perception
    V4
  16. a region of extrastriate cortex associated with motion perception
    V5
  17. a failure to perceive color (the world appears to be grayscale), not to be confused with color blindness
    achromatopsia
  18. a failure to perceive visual motion
    akinetopsia
  19. the color of a surface is perceived as constant even when illuminated in different lighting conditions
    color constancy
  20. ability to detect whether a stimulus is animate or not from movement cues alone
    biological motion
  21. a memory representation of the three dimensional structure of objects
    structural descriptions
  22. a failure to understand the meaning of objects due to a deficit at the level of object perception
    apperceptive agnosia
  23. a failure to understand the meaning of objects due to a deficit at the level of semantic memory
    associative agnosia
  24. the process of segmenting a visual display into objects versus background surfaces
    figure ground segregation
  25. -law of proximity
    -law of similarity
    -law of good continuation
    -law of closure
    -law of common fate
    five basic principles for how basic visual features are combined (Gestalt)
  26. states that the visual elements are more likely to be grouped if they are closer together.
    law of proximity
  27. elements will be grouped together if they share visual attributes
    law of similarity
  28. edges are grouped together to avoid changes or interruptions
    law of good continuation
  29. missing parts are "filled" in
    law of closure
  30. elements that move together tend to be grouped together
    law of common fate
  31. a failure to integrate parts into wholes in visual perception
    integrative agnosia
  32. an understanding that objects remain the same, irrespective of differences in viewing condition
    object constancy
  33. inability to extract the orientation of an object despite adequate object recognition
    object orientation agnosia
  34. the notion that the brain represents different categories in different ways
    category specificity
  35. stored knowledge of the three dimensional structure of familiar faces
    face recognition units (FRU's)
  36. an abstract description of people that links together perceptual knowledge with semantic knowledge
    person identity nodes (PINs)
  37. impairments of face processing that do not reflect difficulties in early visual analysis (inability to recognize previously familiar faces)
    prosopagnosia

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