Abdomen Test #3
Card Set Information
Abdomen Test #3
Abdomen Test #3
A fibrous sheath that surrounds kidneys, perinephric fat & the adrenal glands
True capsule that covers kidney
Fat around kidney
Highly echogenic central area of the kidney
Calyces, Fat, Nerves, Lymph nodes
Urine reservoir (collecting system)
Expanded Superior (prox) portion of ureter
Column of Bertin
Prominent cortical tissue
Separates Medullary Pyramids
Can mimic a mass
Blood in urine
Albumin/Protein in urine
Increased/Excessive urine output
Decreased urine output
Normal size of kidney? How do they develop
9-12 cm (sag)
2-4 cm A/P
5-7 cm TRV
Develop in the Pelvis w/pelvic organ
Migrate into the flank area
Is Kidney Intra or retroperitoneal?
Which kidney is higher/larger in the body?
Lt kidney is higher by 0.5-1 cm longer than right
Parenchyma is made up of what?
Cortex/Medulla (functional unit)
Entrance to Renal sinus is referred to as?
What structures pass through the hilum?
What are the Kidney functions?
Dispose metabolic waste through urine
Maintain bl pressure thu regulation of fl. vol.
Regulate Ph balance (base/acid)
Regulate Serum electrolytes
Kidney Lab Values
Creatinine (most Specific)
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen Waste)
Homogenous low-level echoes
Hypoechoic to liver
Triangular shaped, hypoechoic surround sinus
Highly echogenic central area
Smooth Contour & Jelly Bean shaped
Blood flow pathway
rcuate A (smallest can be seen)
Blood flow pathway
Which is longer? (Rt/Lt Renal Art) (Rt/Lt Renal Vn)
Right Renal A is longer (AO)
Left Renal Vn is longer (IVC)
How does each course around the AO or IVC? (Rt/Lt Renal A) (Rt/Lt Renal Vn)
Rt Renal A
Lt Renal Vn
Diffuse Renal Parenchymal Disease
Poorly functioning kidneys w/o obstruction (all over)
of Diffuse Renal Parenchymal Disease
Echogenic Parenchyma (cortex/medulla)
Small, contracted Kidneys
Atrophy, small w/thin cortex
Bulge in Capsule of Lt Kidney due to compression by spleen
Kidney in pelvis
Most common, usually fused @ lower poles
Junctional Parenchymal Defect
Echogenic Triangle on renal capsule (around periphery of kidney)
Dual Collecting System
More common anomaly
2 collecting sys.
Complete or incomplete
Has upper/lower sinus area
Renal arteries flow (high/low)
Low resistance bec. it feeds major organs
Where is a transplanted kidney placed?
Iliac Fossa on Rt side connected to Iliac A
Name the Fl collections that may occur after a Renal transplant
Post transplant hydronephrosis
3 causes of Post-transplant kidney failure
Acute Tubular Necrosis (common cause) Degeneration of tissue
What is the drug cyclosporine use to prevent in a transplanted kidney?
Possible Post-biopsy complications
Arterio Venous Malformation (Fistula)
What is Resistive Index (RI) used for?
Test Kidney Function
Normal RI for the Kidney
Area of the bladder that is triangular in shape
Located on Posterior/Inferior wall
Superficial neoplasms of bladder wall
Outpouching of UB wall
Most common solid tumor in Children
Man made circle in UB
Mechanical way to drain urine
Inflammation of the renal parenchyma & pelvis
Benign Renal Hamartoma composed of bl vessels, muscle & fat
Vascular tumor that can happen in other places of the body
A focal growth that resembles a neoplasm but results fr faulty development in an organ
Ureteropelvic Junction obstruction (ureter/pelvis)
Congenital narrowing of the ureter just
Ureterovesicle Junction obstruction
Congenital narrowing of the ureter
Posterior Urethral Valves
Membrane obstructs post urethra causing dilation of UB, ureters and Pelvis
Prune Belly Syndrome
: Eagle Bartlett Syndrome
Calcium deposits in Medullary pyramids
Non-surgical U/S vibration treatment of kidney stones
Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
Non-surgical water-therapy treatment of Kidney stones
Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC)
Secondary Cancer from the urinary tract
Where does TCC originate?
Transitional Cells of Urinary bladder
Where does TCC go?
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)
Malignant cancer of the kidney
Where does RCC originate?
Where does RCC go?
Parapelvic Cyst (not a true cyst, so where are they derived from)?
Renal Cyst located in the Sinus Hilum region
What can parapelvic cyst be confused with?
or Extra Renal Pelvis
Polycystic Kidney Disease or Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
Inherited and Progressive
Latent until 50's
APKD is associated with?
Cyst in Spleen, Liver and Pancrease
Renal Parenchymal Disease
Poorly functioning kidneys w/o obstruction
Form of chronic pyelonephritis
Renal pelvis contracts around a stone
Shadowing fr stone
USA of Nephrolithiasis
Possible Post shadowing (anechoic)
Stones in ureter may not be seen
How to prove stones?
Use color doppler to see if stone displays "Twinkle artifact"
Change to a higher frequency tx
Type of Infective Stone
Fills entire Renal pelvis w/ post. shadowing
USA of Hydronephrosis
Fluid in Renal Sinus/Calyces
USA of Mild Hydro
Slight separation of collecting system
USA of Moderate Hydro
Further dilation of calyces (paw print)
USA of Severe Hydro
Large anechoic area w/ thinning cortex