Biology 172 Quiz 13

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Biology 172 Quiz 13
2013-11-13 04:30:18
Biology 172 Quiz 13 exam

Gas Exchange in Animals Osmoregulation and Excretion
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  1. Why is the respiratory system of a bird more efficient than the human respiratory system? 
    A.A bird lung contains multiple alveoli, which increases the amount of surface area available for gas exchange. 
    B.The human respiratory system ends in small parabronchi, which reduce the amount of surface area available for gas exchange.
    C.The flow-through anatomy of the bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air. 
    D.The bird respiratory system consists of a counter-current arrangement of airflow and blood across and through its gill filaments. 
    E.The internal spaces of the human respiratory system does not provide much surface area for gas exchange.
    Answer Key: C
  2. Which type of epithelial tissues form the lining of the air sacs of the lungs where gas exchange takes place? 
    A.stratified squamous 
    B.simple columnar 
    D.simple squamous 
    Answer Key: D
  3. The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in 
    A.hemoglobin concentration
    C.the partial pressure of oxygen 
    D.the partial pressure of carbon monoxide 
    Answer Key: B
  4. How is most carbon dioxide carried by the blood? 
    A.dissolved carbon dioxide in the plasma bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) 
    C.attached to hemoglobin 
    D.dissolved carbon dioxide in red blood cells carbon monoxide
    Answer Key: B
  5. Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize 
    C.diffusion transport 
    E.blood pressure
    Answer Key: C
  6. Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because 
    A.pressure in the alveoli increases 
    B.gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure 
    C.pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs
    D.the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume 
    E.a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes
    Answer Key: D
  7. A respiratory adaptation of marine mammals that allows them to dive deeply for extended periods of time is 
    A.breathing through gills 
    B.increasing the heart rate 
    C.low tolerance for carbon dioxide build up in the tissues
    D.allowing the lungs to collapse 
    E.abundant myoglobin in blood plasma
    Answer Key: D
  8. A marine bony fish 
    A.avoids drinking water an osmoconformer 
    C.accumulates urea 
    D.actively absorbs salts
    E.excretes a hypertonic urine
    Answer Key: E
  9. Birds and reptiles excrete ______ as their principal excretory waste. 
    A.amino acids 
    D.uric acid 
    Answer Key: D
  10. The structure that creates a solute concentration gradient within the renal pyramid of the human kidney is the 
    A.distal convoluted tubule 
    B.proximal convoluted tubule 
    C.collecting duct
    D.loop of Henle 
    E.renal cortex
    Answer Key: D
  11. What substance is secreted by the proximal-tubule cells of the human nephron and prevents the pH of urine from becoming too acidic? 
    Answer Key: C
  12. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentrates the urine by 
    A.stimulating the secretion of urea by the glomerulus
    B.increasing the permeability of the collecting duct walls to water 
    C.raising the body temperature leading to evaporative water loss 
    D.inhibiting sodium reabsorption by the distal convoluted tubule 
    E.turning the loop of Henle into a countercurrent multiplier
    Answer Key: B
  13. In the mammalian kidney, a hyperosmotic urine is produced 
    A.because the walls of the collecting ducts become permeable to water 
    B.when antidiuretic hormone is discharged into the blood stream 
    C.after osmoregulatory cells in the hypothalamus release a hormone in response to a high blood osmolarity a consequence of a concentration gradient established within the renal pyramids
    E.all of these
    Answer Key: E
  14. Organisms categorized as osmoconformers are most likely 
    C.found in freshwater lakes 
    E.found in freshwater streams
    Answer Key: B
  15. The juxtaglomerular apparatus located in the renal pelvis stimulated by a decrease in blood pressure or blood volume 
    C.secretes the hormone aldosterone 
    D.causes copious hypoosmotic urine production when stimulated 
    E.all of these
    Answer Key: B
  16. The bed of capillaries in a vertebrate kidney where water, urea, and salts are filtered out of the blood is the _____.
  17. In each nephron of the kidney, the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule _____.
    filter the blood and capture the filtrate
  18. The fluid that enters vertebrate nephrons is called the filtrate. What is the source of the filtrate?
    blood in capillaries