Structure and Function of Organelles

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  1. Structure of RER
    • -          ribosomes on the outside (form polysomes)
    • -          ER lumen
    • -          cisternae that may be attached to one another
    • -          continuous with the nuclear envelope
    • -          flattened sheets
    • polarity from one end to the other
  2. Function of the RER
    • -          starting point of the biosynthetic pathway
    • -          synthesis of proteins, carbs, and phospholipids that will be destined for export from the cell or remain in other membrane compartments or in the membrane
    • storage of antibodies
  3. Structure of the SER
    • -          interconnected tubules
    • -          no ribosomes on the outside
    • -          connected to RER (this connection allows for diffusion of proteins and lipids between one another)
    • contains reticulons (responsible for curvature of SER tubules)
  4. Function of the SER
    • -          synthesis of phospholipids
    • -          synthesis of cholesterol and steroids
    • -          synthesis of glycolipids
    • -          storage of Calcium ions that leads to contraction upon release
    • detoxification of alcohols by oxygenases
    • synthesis of bile salts
    • processing of glycogen
  5. Structure of the Golgi Apparatus
    • -          interconnected with space between them
    • -          three regions: cis, medial,and trans, as well as the CGN and TGN
    • -          contains different composition from cis to trans
    • -          flattened, dislike membranous cisternae with dilated rims and associated vesicles and tubules
    • -          curved cisternae: usually 3-7, but some have few or up to several thousand distinct stacks
    • trans region is supported by a peripheral membrane skeleton made up of spectrin, ankyrin and actin
    • - polar: different faces; 1/2 a micrometer in diameter; tubules around the outside
  6. Function of the Golgi Apparatus
    • -          processing plant (modification of proteins with addition of sulfates, phosphates, carbs, etc.)
    • -          assembly of carbohydrate component of glycoproteins and glycolipids
    • synthesis of most of a cell’s complex polysaccharides
    • - secretion
    • membrane transformation
    • origin of lysosomes
  7. Structure of peroxisome
    very simple organelle with two subcompartments: boundary membrane and internal matrix
  8. Function of peroxisome
    detox of alcohols
  9. Structure of mitochondria
    four subcompartments: IMM, OMM, matrix, intermembrane space
  10. Function of mitochondria
    • synthesize 10% of their own proteins, but not all
    • cell resp
  11. Structure of Chloroplasts
    • -          six subcompartments:
    • o   thylakoid membrane
    • o   thylakoid space
    • o   stroma
    • o   outer membrane
    • o   inner membrane
    • intermembrane space
  12. Function of chloroplasts
  13. Types of proteins made on the RER
    -          secreted proteins, integral membrane proteins, and souble proteins that remain within compartments of the endomembrane system
  14. Types of proteins made in the cytosol
    -          proteins that will remain in the cytosl, peripheral proteins of the cytosolic surface, proteins destined to the nucleus, peroxisomes, chloroplasts, and mitochondria
Card Set:
Structure and Function of Organelles
2013-11-12 03:27:15
Cell Bio

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