Structure and Function of Organelles

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  1. Structure of RER
    • -          ribosomes on the outside (form polysomes)
    • -          ER lumen
    • -          cisternae that may be attached to one another
    • -          continuous with the nuclear envelope
    • -          flattened sheets
    • polarity from one end to the other
  2. Function of the RER
    • -          starting point of the biosynthetic pathway
    • -          synthesis of proteins, carbs, and phospholipids that will be destined for export from the cell or remain in other membrane compartments or in the membrane
    • storage of antibodies
  3. Structure of the SER
    • -          interconnected tubules
    • -          no ribosomes on the outside
    • -          connected to RER (this connection allows for diffusion of proteins and lipids between one another)
    • contains reticulons (responsible for curvature of SER tubules)
  4. Function of the SER
    • -          synthesis of phospholipids
    • -          synthesis of cholesterol and steroids
    • -          synthesis of glycolipids
    • -          storage of Calcium ions that leads to contraction upon release
    • detoxification of alcohols by oxygenases
    • synthesis of bile salts
    • processing of glycogen
  5. Structure of the Golgi Apparatus
    • -          interconnected with space between them
    • -          three regions: cis, medial,and trans, as well as the CGN and TGN
    • -          contains different composition from cis to trans
    • -          flattened, dislike membranous cisternae with dilated rims and associated vesicles and tubules
    • -          curved cisternae: usually 3-7, but some have few or up to several thousand distinct stacks
    • trans region is supported by a peripheral membrane skeleton made up of spectrin, ankyrin and actin
    • - polar: different faces; 1/2 a micrometer in diameter; tubules around the outside
  6. Function of the Golgi Apparatus
    • -          processing plant (modification of proteins with addition of sulfates, phosphates, carbs, etc.)
    • -          assembly of carbohydrate component of glycoproteins and glycolipids
    • synthesis of most of a cell’s complex polysaccharides
    • - secretion
    • membrane transformation
    • origin of lysosomes
  7. Structure of peroxisome
    very simple organelle with two subcompartments: boundary membrane and internal matrix
  8. Function of peroxisome
    detox of alcohols
  9. Structure of mitochondria
    four subcompartments: IMM, OMM, matrix, intermembrane space
  10. Function of mitochondria
    • synthesize 10% of their own proteins, but not all
    • cell resp
  11. Structure of Chloroplasts
    • -          six subcompartments:
    • o   thylakoid membrane
    • o   thylakoid space
    • o   stroma
    • o   outer membrane
    • o   inner membrane
    • intermembrane space
  12. Function of chloroplasts
  13. Types of proteins made on the RER
    -          secreted proteins, integral membrane proteins, and souble proteins that remain within compartments of the endomembrane system
  14. Types of proteins made in the cytosol
    -          proteins that will remain in the cytosl, peripheral proteins of the cytosolic surface, proteins destined to the nucleus, peroxisomes, chloroplasts, and mitochondria

Card Set Information

Structure and Function of Organelles
2013-11-12 03:27:15
Cell Bio

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