micro ch4/5

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charflynt1
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24624
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micro ch4/5
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2010-06-23 02:25:53
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micro ch 4/5
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  1. Prokaryotic cells do not have a __________ or membrane bound organelles
    true nucleus
  2. Some bacteria are photosynthetic. True or False
    True
  3. Prokaryotic surface to volume ratio is 20 times greater than in a typical human _____
    cell
  4. Eukaryotic cells include what 4 kingdoms?
    Protozoa, algae, fungi, plants
  5. How many layers surround Gram Negative bacterium?
    3
  6. Most bacterial cell capsules are made of _______
    polysaccharides
  7. In a bacterial cell the periplasm is the
    compartment that lies between the outer and cytoplasmic membrane
  8. Gram-Negative bacteria have an outer cell membrane and are __________to many toxic substances.
    resistant
  9. Clostridium perfringens is Gram___________.
    positive
  10. The cell wall of bacteria is found in Gram negative and Gram ________ bacterium.
    positive
  11. Bacilli are ________shaped.
    rod
  12. Coccu is ________shaped
    spherical
  13. Spirillum is ________shaped.
    spiral
  14. Vibrios are ______shaped.
    comma
  15. A species of Vibrio causes __________.
    Cholera
  16. Mycoplasmas lack a cell wall but do not lyse because they do not contain
    turgor pressure
  17. Pili are _____appendages that allow bacteria to attach to surfaces, bacteria or other cells.
    hair-like
  18. Axial filaments are only found in
    Spirochetes
  19. A bacterial cell is placed in an extracellular environment that has a higher solute concentration compared to its intracellular makeup. Inside the bacterial cell this lowers its turgor pressure, and the cell will_________.
    shrink
  20. Solutions A and B are separated by a membrane permeable to water but not permeable to solutes. If solution A has a solute concentration of 0.5 and solutionn B has a solute concentration of 1.5% , solution B is hypertonic to A and gains water by _________
    osmosis.
  21. B a concentration _______more molecules are found in one region compared to another.
    gradient
  22. The diffusion of water across a membrane is
    osmosis
  23. By ______solid material is engulfed by a cell.
    endocytosis
  24. By ______liquid material is taken in by the cell.
    pinocytocis
  25. _________is the expulsion of material from the cell.
    Exocytosis
  26. Syphillis is caused by a species of _____________.
    spirohete (treponema pallidum)
  27. Toxic shock is caused by strains of ______
    staphlococcus
  28. The most common microbe causing urinary tract infection is__________.
    E. Coli
  29. The sum of all chemical activities that take place within an organism
    metabolism
  30. Aerobic metabolism takes place in the presence of _________
    oxygen
  31. The major nutrient that undergoes catabolism is____________
    glucose
  32. During Glycolysis each glucose molecule starts the process and ends forming 2 molecueles of ______, 2 molecules of ATP, and 2 molecules of NADPH.
    pyruvate
  33. Oxidation is the _____of electrons.
    loss
  34. Reduction is the ________of electrons
    gaining
  35. Anaerobic metabolism takes place __________
    in the absence of oxygen.
  36. Lactic fermentation by bacteria is used to produce _____________ and buttermilk.
    yogert
  37. In alcoholic fermentation with yeast, pyruvate is converted to CO2 and __________.
    Ethanol
  38. In an oxygen consuming cell like E. Coli or human cell, 1 glucose molecule forms ______ATP molecules.
    36
  39. Diplo
    pair
  40. strepto
    chain
  41. staphlo
    cluster
  42. Strains of S. pneumonia lacking a capsule are _______. Strains of S. pneumonia with a thick capsule can be ____to humans.
    harmless; fatal
  43. During Glycolysis, each glucose molecule produces 4 ATP with a net gain of ______ATP.
    2
  44. The 3 steps of cellular respiration:
    glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron transport chain
  45. Main process of Glycolysis
    get pyruvate
  46. Main process during Krebs cycle
    reduce NAD and FAD
  47. When there is lack of oxygen, Pyruvate turns to lactic acid or
    ethenol
  48. Heterotrophic-nutrients from orgainic sources
    Autotrophic-make own food thru photosynthesis
  49. movement of molecules from area of low concentration to high concentration
    diffusion
  50. hypertonic- environment has higher concentration of solultes than its interior.
    (may result in ________)
    plasmolysis
  51. Hypotonic-environment has lower concentration of soluutes than cell's interior. May cause cells to _____
    lyse (burst)
  52. equal concentration , no change in water environment
    isotonic
  53. The most resistant bilogical structures known.
    Endospores
  54. Cell wall is made of ______.
    Peptidoclycan.
  55. swim toward favorable concentrations of dissolved oxygen
    aerotaxis
  56. bacteria that sense certain chemical and swim toward regions that contain more nutrients and away from regions with toxic chemicals
    chemotaxis
  57. ATP- adenosene triphosphate

    LPS-lipopolysaccharide
  58. Gram negative bacteria layers around
    periplasm
  59. gram-positive bacteria layer around
    cytoplasmic membrane

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