Biology 1 - Chapter 9
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Define a Signal Transduction Pathway
A group of proteins that convert an initial signal to a different signal inside a cell
Direct Cell Signaling
Cell junctions allow signaling molecules to pass from one cell to another adjacent cell
Contact Dependent Signaling
Membrane bound signals bing to receptors on adjacent cells
Cells release signals that affect themselves and nearby cells
Cells release signals that affect nearby cells
Cells release signals that travel long distances t affect target cells.
What does a Ligand refer to?
A signaling molecule
What are the 3 kinds of Cell Surface Receptors
- 1. Enzyme-Linked Receptors: Have some catalytic function. Many of them are protein kinases (enzymes that transer Pi from ATP to specific AAs in a protein) that phosphorylate proteins.
- 2. G-Protein-coupled Receptors: Interact with G proteins to initiate a cellular response
- 3. Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: Receptors that allow the flow of ions across a cellular membrane.
Define Growth Factor
Signaling molecule that promote cell division
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