the process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment and transforming those energies into neural energy.
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it has meaning
when sensory receptors register information about the external environment and send it up to the brain for interpretation
starts with cognitive processing in the brain; being with some sense of what is happening and apply that framework to incoming information from the world.
specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit to sensory nerves and the brain. All sensations begin here
minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect.
the term given to irrelevant and competing stimuli - not just sounds but any distracting stimuli for our senses.
just noticeable difference
the principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion to be perceived as different
refers to the detection of information below the level conscious awareness.
Signal Detection Theory
a theory of perception that focuses on decision making about stimuli in the presence of uncertainty
the process of focusing awareness on a narrowed aspect of the environment
involves focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others.
a predisposition or readiness to perceive something in a particular way.
a change in responsiveness of the sensory system based on the average level of surrounding stimulation
the light-sensitive surface that records electromagnetic energy and converts it to neural impulses for processing in the brain
the receptors in the retina that are sensitive to light, but they are nit very useful for color vision
the receptors that we use for color reception
carries the visual information to the brain for further processing.
neurons in the brain’s visual system that respond to particular features of a stimulus
the simultaneous distribution of information across different neural pathways.
the bringing together and integration of what is processed by different pathways or cells
proposed by Thomas Young in 1802 and extended by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1852, states that color perception is produced by three types of cone receptors in the retina that are particularly sensitive to different, but overlapping, ranges of wavelengths
states that cells in the visual system respond to red-green and blue-yellow colors; a given cell might be excited by red and inhibited by green, whereas another cell might be excited by yellow and inhibited by blue.
the principle by which we organize the perceptual field into stimuli that stand out and those that are left
a school of thought interested in how people naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns.
the ability to perceive objects three-dimensionally.
are depth cues that depend on the combination of the images in the left and right eyes and on the way the two eyes work together
another binocular cue to depth and distance
depth cues, available from the image in one eye, either right or left.
occurs when we perceive a stationary objects as moving.
the recognition that objects are constant and unchanging even though sensory input about them is changing
consists of the pinna and the external auditory canal
channels the sound through the eardrum, hammer, anvil, and stirrup to the inner ear
which includes the oval window, cochlea, and basilar membrane, is to convert sound waves into neural impulses and send them on to the brain.
states that each frequency produces vibrations at a particular spot on the basilar membrane
gets at these others influences by stating that the perception of a sound’s frequency depends on how often the auditory nerves fires.
states that a cluster of nerve cells can fire neural impulses in rapid succession, producing a volley of impulses.
which carries neural impulses to the brain’s auditory areas
sensory nerve endings under the are respond to change in temperature at or near the skin and provide input to keep the body’s temperature.
the sensation that warns us of damage to our bodies
contains taste buds, the receptors for taste
lining the roof of the nasal cavity contains a sheet of receptor cells for smell, so sniffing maximizes the chances of detection and odor.
provide information about movement, posture, and orientation.
provides information about balance and movement
of the inner ear contain the sensory receptors that detect head motion caused when we tilt or move our head and/or body
Stream of Consciousness
a continuous flow of changing sensation, images, thoughts, and feelings.
an individual’s awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal
the most alert states of human consciousness, individuals actively focus their efforts toward a goal
states of consciousness that involves a low level of conscious effort is daydreaming, which lies between active consciousness and dreaming while asleep.
said Freud, is a reservoir of unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness
a natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss consciousness
periodic physiological fluctuations in the body.
daily behavioral or physiological cycles
a small brain structure that uses input from the retina to synchronize its own rhythm with the daily cycle of light and dark.
an active stage of sleep during which dreaming occurs
the dream’s surface content, which contains dream symbols that disguise the dream’s true meanings.
the dream’s hidden content, its unconscious - and true - meaning.
Cognitive Theory of Dreaming
proposes that we can understand dreaming by applying the same cognitive concepts we use in studying the waking mind.
dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals generated from the activity in the lower part of the brain.
act on the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perception, and change mood
the need to take increasing amounts of drugs to get the same effect.
the physiological need for a drug that causes unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as physical pain and a craving for the drug when it is discontinued
the strong desire to repeat the use of a drug for emotional reasons, such as a feeling of well-being and reduction of stress.
a physical or physiological dependence, or both, on the drug
psychoactive drugs that slow down mental and physical activity
a disorder that involves long-term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic beverages and that impairs the drinker’s health and social beverages
such as Nembutal and Seconal, are depressant drugs that decrease central nervous system activity
such as Valium and Xanax, are depressant drugs that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation
consist of opium and its derivatives and depress the central nervous system’s activity
psychoactive drugs that increase the central nervous system’s activity.
psychoactive drugs that modify a person’s perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real
an altered state of consciousness or as a psychological state of altered attention and expectation in which the individual is unusually receptive to suggestions
Divided Consciousness View on Hypnosis
proposed that hypnosis involves a special divided state of consciousness, a splitting of consciousness into separate components.
Social Cognitive Behavior View of Hypnosis
where hypnosis is a normal state in which the hypnotized person behaves the way he or she believes that a hypnotized person should behave.