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how does aquinas define the soul?
- the first principle of life in those things that live
- the soul can exist in its own but act on the body. soul is substance, essence of the body.
Why was it similar to Aristotle?
because it was common gor late medieval philosophers such as muslims jews and christians to have old ideas mized in with christian ideas
- soul is immortal, spirituality
- no soul, just our mind and body
- H: part of materialism. i dont know what it means
Aquinas and Plato on separated soul
- Aquinas: soul is my whole essence. separated soul but incomplete. life is to act on the body. Soul is helped by the body. body glorified by God.
- Plato: soul id in a better state because we thing clearly without the body
His argument for immateriality of intellect.
- Idea that human intellect is immaterial. Immaterial meaning non physical.
- Spiritual powers in the person. Senses see colors and mind thinks concepts
- He perceives individual human beings but mind thinks human-ness (human nature) as universal. Mind different than sense when it comes to thought.
- Think of it like a math concept:
- A: all metarial things are particular
- B: and concepts are not particular
- (therefore/seems to follow) that c-concepts are NOT material
if concepts are immaterial, meaning non physical, then the mind that thinks them is also ?
what example should we recall for this?
- lenses. in order for lenses to see color, it has to be colorless.
- in order for the mind to see the body it must be bodyless.
"If intellect, were material, the forms received would be particular"
explain: phone call
- hey honey, going to be late
- if trusting person, then i receive with trust. if jealous then suspicion
- mind receiving concepts universally then in itself must be immaterial.
- think of picture of me seeing the tree in notes.
- i see the tree but think universal, think of tree-ness. the idea is abstract
- the image of the tree is the phantasm
- Knowledge arises from sensation
- From the internet:
- human beings are born without any ideas in their minds, man only knows through the process of abstraction of the essences of particular things and forming them into universal ideas. specific operation of the intellect consisting of detaching and retaining some property from athing. This property serves as the basis upon which the intellect forms a cognitive image orconcept of a thing
- Aristotle: conceives substance as a compound of matter and form, all is matter. a soul is a form—that is, a property or set of properties—belonging to a living thing
- Aquinas: soul is itself a configured thing, but it also configures the body. soul was not only substantial matter. body had something to do.
Hume is very skeptical of who?
Descartes. especially when he talks about how we know ourselves, know our soul more than our bodies
what is an impression?
the original thing that happens. or the five senses.
what is an idea?
- the copy of the impression. what aquinas would call the phantasm.
- Hume is kinda questioning it. every impression comes from another.
Impression of ideas
ideas are copies of impressions?
no ideas of "self"
- no idea of self because i have constantly changing emotions
- picture of walking in the park. happy, fear of dog, warmth of sun, calm, excited by pretty lady.
- the self is no longer here, there is not one impression of the self. no one impression you can point to.
simple and identical self. explain
- one self
- one and the same
- I remain steve stiby throughout my life.
- picture: it is not one, and they are not the same. always changing. it can be similar but not identical. it is the similarity that unites us
Second half of Hume:
Relationship between the Impressions
- 1. Resemblance
- 2. Continuity
- 3. Cause
Resemblance/ similarity to my memory causes me to connect them. Today looks like Friday. Continuity causes me to remember the past. pie = mom and happy.
Hume focuses on what rather than what?
- objects rather than what the self is doing when the self feels rear or excitement.
- the self is present to itself in the objects.
let us recall in the past, what is the classical definition of death?
- separation of soul and body.
- this is kinda easy.
- separation is easy to understand. what we don't understand is the connection.
Separation of soul and body but meaning is how they are connected. give some examples
separated child from mother: mother beats child, mother loves child but he is abducted. both has a different case in separation
arm away from body: accident, or has tumor
Dualism and death.
Artisan to the tool: explain
- dualism and death: freeing of soul from the body
- artisan (soul) to the tool, captain to the ship, person to the prison. in each case the soul just steps aside. the captain leaves ship and is fine. prisoner is free and even happier.
- Common theme for man to be soul. I am the soul just inhabiting the body. i will continue on just fine.
dualism of soul and body according to:
- body dies but soul is fine.
- plato: soul is better, body damages me
- descartes: i do not need the body, so death is awesome and fine. go dualism.
anti dualism in pieper
- he says man dies. i am not just a soul. i am a man and soul united. soul has lost most of its function. it is missing and has gotten worst. pieper does not like the captain to ship analogies.
- the man dies, the person dies.
- Pieper doesnt like that dualism says that the soul is okay and happy in death. but death touches the soul and affects the body. misunderstanding this is misunderstanding oh human nature. deny importance of body and body essence of human nature. death is horrible and hurts us all.
nothing in person is purely what?
- purely material nor purely physical
- dualism says purely spiritual, it is the soul.
- materialist: entirely physical, nothing spiritual.
- pieper: we are both. we are one.
- nothing purely physical: rather organic life with involuntary functions, spiritual center of decision (will)
- in conclusion: the whole person is dying
Why do we philosophize?
what is philosophize
- errant of human nature, struggle to survive
- philosophize: search for wisdom
Knowledge for knowledge's sake
Knowledge of self preservation
- skeptical about the first one. we tell this to ourselves but are lying at our core. we are obsessed with why we die. always back to death.
- ultimately this knowledge is for self preservation. want to continue to live. and live right.
- self preservation driven by need for immortality
fundamental philosophical question?
- do we die utterly? where do we come from? what is goodness? why are we here? is there a God?
- everything focus on death
- always come back to death.
- self preservation driven by need for immortality
Practical purpose vs. theoretical purpose
- practical: knowledge of why. for the sake of action, politics, how we should ask
- theoretical: knowledge of what it is, math, bio
- truly we want to know where we are going
three things that we know for Unanumo
- 1. know that we die: gives us despair, in the end it is nothing
- 2. we know we don't die utterly, registration
- 3. we don't know: creates tension. tragic conflict
- or some sort of combination
healthy minded theory
- not natural, not universal. fear of death is not unnate
- if there is anxiety about death, it is from bad nurturing
morbid minded theory
- innate, universal
- basic fear that inflates all others
- always present in our mental functioning
compare/ contrast the two theories
- both theories recognize that some people think about death while others don't. then goes into different things.
- becker agrees with morbidly minded.
fear of death
- any anxiety, depression, sickness is caused by the psychological conditions caused by dear of death.
- the fear is present in all our mental functions
? i dont know. get this answered
List the charges against existentialism. later we will go over them and talk about the responds Sarte gives them
- 1. quietness
- 2. dwells on the negative
- 3. ignores human solidarity
- 4. Denies reality and series of human action
- Charge: he calls it quietism. saying life is absurd. with no god, there is no reason to do anything. no purpose. this creates quietness.
- Respond: ?
- philosophy of freedom: power to choose is an activist philosopher. telling you to take action to become whatever you wish to become.
2. Dwells on negative.
- Charge: it is dark and sordid. the point of it is too point out the seriousness of it. bring out our freedom to do something about the negativity
- Control own future/ destiny. you are in charge. this view is optimism. unlike others who believe there is a purpose which men's pessimistic.
3. Ignores human solidarity
- Charge: isolating. because it denies human nature it ?
4. Denies reality and series of human action
- Respond: makes action arbitrary, capricious. charge that if no morality then we can do whatever we want then actions are arbitrary. because God does not exit.
- arbitrary means: based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.
existence precedes essence
Existence precedes everything
- no a priori.
- purpose: god creates us with it.
- sarte: god does ot exist then no preset or existenc.
- none of that. no nature of design. no morality. we create purpose, nature, morality.
- Forlorn: alone, no god to guide us or turn to for help.
- Anguish: we are ultimately responsible. this causes anguish. those happy people are ignoring it/ repressing this anguish
- Solipsism: refer to subjective, isolated in our won mental universe, truth becomes subjective, communication becomes subjective.
- part of human condition.
- we need each other. others are condition of our existence.
- agrees with Descartes starting point. but does not agree that I cannot think of myself as a thinking thing without the idea of other persons.
criticism of nature
- "driven by passion, anger made me do it"
- emotion/ passion of movement forced/ impelled me to do it.
- he dislikes the idea/excuse that passion brought action. we are responsible for the feeling of passion. we have done this in past and don't know how to handle it
- nature determenist say it is genetic code for us to behave a certain way. sarte says not. just making excuses.
sarte's religion point of view?
- agnostic, atheist, religions
paper cutter example
- what is the point: example of essence precedes existence. but with humanity it is backwards.
- paper cutter is a manufactor product. concept in person's mind.
- know what it is, what it's going to be used for before he has it
- preexisting: purpose, design, structure, nature, method of production, rules for use.
- human being: not the cause. god creates human beings with a purpose (in a christian view), rules of mortality.
A priori, meaning ?
- meaning preset. if god existed there would be a purpose. but for Sarte there is no God.
- we just arrive, well then, what is the cause of our morality.
- it comes from our own will. we created it.
- there is no human nature. no a priori, no purpose, no nature, no morality. we created religion.