ZOO2AP Exam Preparation

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ZOO2AP Exam Preparation
2013-11-13 06:33:11
ZOO2AP Exam Preparation

ZOO2AP Exam Preparation
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  1. Secretions in the rumen include the following
    a bicarbonate/phosphate buffer
  2. The Nernst equation defines
    The equilibrium potential for a single ion
  3. Enzymes help reactions by
    lowering the activation energy of a reaction
  4. Osmosis
    The net movement of water down its concentration gradient
  5. Diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane requires
    The cell membrane be permeable to the substance
  6. According to Fick's Law of Diffusion, the rate of diffusion of a substance(dQs/dt) is dependent on
    DsA(dCs/dx) where Ds is the diffusion coefficient; A is the cross sectional area; dCs is the change in concentration of substrate and dx is the membrane thickness
  7. Cell membranes contain the following constituents
    fatty acids with polar heads and non polar tails; cholesterol and proteins
  8. True of False: Cell membranes are rigid structures
  9. True of False: Phospholipids that make up cell membranes are able to move within the bilayer in a flexible way
  10. True or False:Phospholipids bilayers are hydrophilic structures allowing all molecules to readily diffuse through them
  11. The term capacitance defines
    The amount of charge stored by a cell membrane
  12. The partition coefficient of a molecule describes
    its solubility in water
  13. The ion channel responsible for the action potential in a neuron is carried by
  14. What is an example of negative feedback?
    A decrease in blood pressure away from the homeostatic set point results in a cardiovascular response that re-establishes blood pressure homeostasis
  15. The function of myelin is
    Provide insulation along the axon
  16. During the absolute refractory period
    No new action potential can be triggered
  17. The renal portal system can only be found in
    In all vertebrates other than mammals
  18. The systemic circulation of birds is supplied by the
    The right systemic arch
  19. The pulmonary artery is derived from the ancestral form of
    Aortic arch 6
  20. The hepatic portal system drains blood from
    The gut and associated structures
  21. Digestion of cellulose in herbivores takes place in
    A rumen or caecum
  22. The monogastric stomach is comprised of
    The pylorus, cardia and fundus
  23. The subclavian arteries of vertebrates supply
    The pectoral limbs
  24. Facilitated diffusion describes
    The movement of a solute down its concentration gradient using a transporter or a channel
  25. A voltage gated channel is activated by
    change in membrane potential
  26. A cell will gain water if
    The cytoplasm of the cell is considered to be hypo-osmotic to the extracellular environment
  27. Stenohaline animals tolerate
    tolerate a narrow range of osmotic environments
  28. In cells, the term conductance refers to
    The movement of an ion across the cell membrane through a channel
  29. Mean Arterial Pressure is
    the diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
  30. The pre and post ganglion nerves of the sympathetic nervous system secrete the following neurotransmitters
    acetyl choline and epinephrine
  31. How many ions are needed to change the membrane potential to about 90mV?
  32. The resting membrane potential of a cell is largely set by
  33. The amphibian heart is made up of the following chambers
    two artia and a single ventricle
  34. The purkinje fibers are
    specialized conductive tissues in the heart
  35. An example of secondary active transport is
    Movement of molecule A against its concentration gradient facilitated by the transport of substance B with its concentration gradient.
  36. During rumination a product of fermentative digestion is
    volatile fatty acids
  37. Exocytosis is a process in neurons used to
    to secrete neurotransmitter
  38. Cardiac Output is defined by the following equation
    HR x SV
  39. The length constant is an electrical property of a nerve cell that defines
    the distance that an action potential can spread along a nerve cell
  40. Which ion is more concentrated inside cells
  41. What two forces drive the diffusion of an ion across a membrane
    concentration gradient and electrochemical gradient
  42. What is meant by the term resting membrane potential and give a value(mV)
    no channels are activated in the cell and no ions are moving through the membrane. -90mV
  43. What would you expect the membrane potential to be if the that cell was equally permeable to both sodium and potassium and if both ions had an equal concentration gradient.
    0 because each ion would have an equal chance of going across the membrane and therefore the potential wouldn't lean positive or negative.
  44. What does the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation describe?
    Defines the equilibrium potential using all the ions that are permeable to the membrane
  45. Parasympathetic Branch
    originates in the brain stem and lower part of the spinal cord. The division of the autonomic nervous system that restores the body's normal resting state and conserves energy.
  46. Sympathetic Branch
    increases physiological responses such as heart rate and respiration. responses are not under voluntary control
  47. Autonomic Nervous System
    a division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions; made up of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  48. Central Nervous System
    the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  49. Peripheral Nervous System
    the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
  50. Visceral Nerves
    Involuntary nerves
  51. Somatic Nerves
    Voluntary Nerves
  52. Efferent
    of nerves and nerve impulses, carrying away from CNS
  53. Afferent
    of nerves and nerve impulses, conveying information from organs to CNS
  54. Stroke Volume
    the volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each heartbeat (end diastolic volume - end systolic volume)
  55. Cardiac Output
    the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in a given period of time
  56. Heart Rate
    the rate at which the heart beats (beats per minute)
  57. Homodont
    Having teeth that are uniform in form, shape, and function.
  58. Polyphyodont
    a lifetime of generations of teeth, like a conveyor belt. such teeth have a breif life and are simple in design
  59. Diphyodont
    having second set of teeth that replaces the first
  60. What does the hormones gastrin do and where is it formed?
    promotes secretion of HCl and growth of both stomach and intestinal mucosa. Formed in pyloric gland area of the stomach.
  61. The velocity of a reaction increases linearly when
    the amount of enzyme is in excess of the amount of substrate
  62. The Km of an enzyme defines
    The affinity of the enzyme for its substrate derived from the half maximum velocity of the reaction
  63. Osmosis defines
    The net movement of water down its concentration gradient
  64. Animals that osmoregulate
    maintain a constant internal osmotic environment using numerous cellular or organ systems
  65. The autonomic nervous system of vertebrates
    Has two branches0 the parasympathetic and the sympathetic branch
  66. A coupled reaction describes
    The transfer of energy from one molecule to another is coupled to reduce the overall free energy of the reaction
  67. The ionic current responsible for the action potential is carried by
  68. A local response describes
    a depolarization event that reaches threshold triggering an action potential
  69. Summation of electrical signals is a process where
    Individual depolarization events separated by time build upon each other resulting in a greater change in membrane potential
  70. The first pharyngeal slit of elasmobranchs forms
    The spiracles
  71. Osmotic pressure is defined by
    Van Hoff's Law
  72. The amphibian heart is made up of the following chambers
    two atria and a single ventricle
  73. Homodont teeth are classifies as
    teeth that are uniform in structure
  74. The hyoid apparatus in some vertebrates is used to
    Allow swallowing of large prey
  75. How are the Nernst equation and the equilibrium potential related?
    The Nernst equation determines the equilibrium potential of an ion using the concentration gradients for that ion. As the ratio of concentration on the outside of the cell and concentration of inside the cell decreases the Nernst potential becomes more negative.
  76. What does the term equilibrium potential mean?
    State at which electrical potential across a membrane balances with a concentration gradient of an ion to which that membrane is permeable. There isn't an excess charge or concentration difference between the inside and outside of the membrane.
  77. What are the resistance vessels and what equation describes the flow through these vessels?
    The arterioles provide resistance since there are so many of them. They allow the pressure to decrease before the blood hits the capillaries although the flow rate remains constant. Poiseuille's Law describes the flow through the vessels.
  78. Basal electric rythum
    Determines frequency of contractions in gastrointestinal tract
  79. partition coefficient
    A distribution ratio describing how the inhaled anesthetic distributes itself between two phases at equilibrium. The solubility of the inhaled anesthetics in blood and tissue is denoted by the partition coefficient
  80. nernst equation
    Eion=(RT/Fz)log([ion]out/[ion]in RT/Fz=58mV
  81. Fick's Law of DIffusion
  82. Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation
  83. The pre and post ganglion nerves of the parasympathetic nervous system secrete the following neurotransmitters
    acetyl choline and acetyl choline
  84. Poiseuille's Law
    • ΔP = 8•η•L•Q/(π•r4)
    • η = coefficient of viscosity
    • L = length of pipe
    • r = radius of pipe
    • Q = flow rate of fluid
  85. What does the hormones secretin do and where is it formed?
    Controls secretions in the duodenum and regulates the pH. Also found in the pancreas. Formed in the duodenum.
  86. What are the four types of specialised cells?
    • –Muscle cells – produce force and movement
    • –Nerve cells – electrical signaling
    • –Epithelial cells – secrete and absorb ions & molecules
    • –Connective tissue cells – connect, anchor, support
  87. What is negative feedback?
    Change in variable being regulated results in responses tending to push the variable in the opposite direction to the original change (inhibitory). E.g. If you are in a room and the room gets hotter, the body will sweat to cool itself. E.g. Aircon senses that the room is getting hotter, and turns on and sends out cooler air to lower room temperature
  88. What is positive feedback?
    Initial change sets of a sequence of events that increases the disturbance even further (stimulatory). E.g. When you do something and it feels good so you keep doing it.
  89. What are the stages in the reflex arc?
    • Receptor - receives a message that tells something about the environment
    • Afferent pathway
    • Integrating centre - processes the message (e.g. the brain)
    • Efferent pathway - may be multiple
    • Effector- provides the response to the message that helps to modify the response to the stimulus
  90. What composes cell membranes?
    • Lipids:
    • Phospholipids
    • Glycolipids
    • Cholesterol
    • Proteins:
    • Channels
    • Pumps
    • Enzymes
  91. What is the purpose of the cell membrane?
    Provide a barrier to the movement of substances between the cell and the extracellular environment or between intracellular compartments. No cell wall like in plants, cell membrane only.
  92. What comprises a phospholipid?
    Hydrophilic polar head and hydrophobic non-polar tail made of glycerol and fatty acids.
  93. What are mycelles?
    Aggregates formed by lipids due to their hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.
  94. True or false: cell membranes are good at repairing themselves if the damage is not too severe.
  95. In what ways can the lipid bilayer flex?
    Laterally, flex and rotate, and flip across layers
  96. What determines fluidity of the lipids?
    • Cholesterol - rigid molecule which decreases fluidity
    • Unsaturated carbon chains - increase fluidity
    • Distribution of different types of lipids is not uniform in the cell
  97. What is Fick's law of diffusion?
    dQS/dt = DSA (dCS/dx)
  98. What are the variables in ficks law of diffusion?
    • CS= concentration of substrate (S)
    • x = thickness of membrane
    • A = cross sectional area
    • DS = diffusion coefficient
    • βS= partition coefficient
  99. What does ficks law of diffusion tell us?
    The rate of diffusion of a substance over a given time
  100. Explain Ds, A, βs and (dCs/dx)
    • Diffusion coefficient (Ds) – just a number for the measurement of the diffusion of the substance, based on such things as size and shape of the molecules
    • Area (A) – area of the membrane, or the compartment that is being diffused across.
    • (dCs/dx) – change in the concentration of a substance across a certain distance of a membrane (x). X differs to A because a is more 3d, as diffusion may occur in multiple directions.
    • Bs – the partition coefficient – defining the solubility of the substance, it is the ration of the concentration of the lipid bilayer divided by the concentration of the aqueous environment.
  101. Ficks law defines what?
    Fick’s Law defines quantitatively the ease with which substance can permeate a membrane
  102. How does passive transport (facilitated diffusion) occur?
    Through pores, ion gated channels, ligand gated channels and stretch activated channels.
  103. How does facilitated transport occur through pores?
    Pore opens to allow movement of ions, H2O and small molecules, which move down concentration or electrical gradient. No energy is required, other than the thermal energy inherent to all atoms above absolute zero. Rate is purely a function of the concentration gradient. The steeper the gradient, the higher the rate of influx.
  104. How does facilitated transport occur through ion gated channels?
    A change in membrane potential, such as negative Vm outside (inside) the cell would make the channel open (close). They are selective in which molecules they will let in to repel molecules of the same change, and attract molecules of different charge.
  105. How does facilitated transport occur through ligand gated channels?
    Ligand-gated channels are switched on by some other molecule (molecule A), that when it attaches to a particular site on that channel it opens, and a suitable molecule B can move through the channel.
  106. How does facilitated transport occur through stretch activated channels?
    When the membrane is stretch the channel opens
  107. What is symport facilitated diffusion
    molecules attach to receptor on outside, receptor flips around and molecule falls off inside
  108. What is uniport facilitated diffusion
    molecule attach to receptor on outside, receptor turns around and molecule falls off inside
  109. What is antiport facilitated diffusion?
    facilitated/coupled transport – as a molecule is going in, another molecule is going out
  110. What is primary active transport?
    Activity of Na+/K+ pump maintains the distribution of high IC potassium and low IC sodium relative to their EC concentrations. Net transfer of positive charge to outside of cell
  111. What is secondary active transport?
    Energy source is an electrochemical gradient. Movement of an ion down its EC gradient coupled to the transport of another molecule (e.g. glucose, a/a) E.g. Na+ would move from outside (with higher concentration) to inside (with lower concentration), down the gradient. Another molecule piggybacks on the movement of Na+ to get inside the cell as well.
  112. What is cotransport
    Solute moves in same direction as ion in secondary active transport
  113. What is countertransport?
    Solute moves in opposite direction to ion in secondary active transport.
  114. What is endocytosis?
    Regions of the plasma membrane fold into the cell, forming small pockets that pinch off to form IC vesicles enclosing a small volume of ECF
  115. What is exocytosis?
    Membrane-bound vesicles in the cytoplasm fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents to the outside of the cell
  116. What is osmosis?
    The net movement of water across a semi- permeable barrier that is permeant to water but impermeant to solutes
  117. What is hypo-osmosis?
    Extracellular environment more dilute or exerts a lower osmotic pressure
  118. What is hyper-osmosis
    Extracellular environment more concentrated or exerts a higher osmotic pressure
  119. What is an isotonic solution?
    Does not cause a change in cell volume
  120. What is a hypertonic solution?
    Causes cells to shrink
  121. What is a hypotonic solution
    Causes cells to swell
  122. What are euryhaline aquatic animals
    Tolerate a wide range of osmotic concentration in the extracellular environment. They can be osmoregulators (maintain constant internal milieu with consumption of ATP) or osmoconformers (can vary the concentration of impermeant molecules).
  123. What are stenohayline aquatic animals?
    Tolerate only a narrow range of osmotic concentration in the extracellular environment.
  124. What is the equilibrium potential?
    The potential that builds up across a cell membrane that counterbalances the desire for diffusion down a concentration gradient.
  125. What is the Donnan Equilibrium?
    • Donnan Equilibrium is defined by a reciprocal distribution of the anion and cation:
    • [K+]i  =  [Cl-]o
    • [K+]o      [Cl-]i
    • Arises because of the need for electroneutrality; cations and anions cross in pairs; at equilibrium the rate of diffusion of KCl is equal in both directions.
  126. What is the equation for membrane potential?
    Vm = Vin-Vout
  127. What is capacitance?
    a measure of the total sum of charge that has accumulated across the cell membrane
  128. What is conductance?
    Refers to the movement of charge - in this case the movement of ions across a cell membrane. This requires the presence of channels. Thus the conductance of a membrane is a measure of its permeability. Ohms Law 1=G x deltaVm where I is the ionic current (amps)
  129. What is resistance?
    Defines the degree of hindrance to the movement of charge. In this case the ease with which ions move through a channel
  130. What determines the equilibrium potential?
    The concentration gradient
  131. What are action potentials?
    Action potentials are essentially brief electrical signals. They are important for signaling in many cells. They allow the spread of information over long distances as well as locally. They are typically generated from the activity of voltage-gated ion channels
  132. What are somatic nerves?
    Skeletal muscle, skin and derivatives
  133. Visceral nerves
    Visceral organs - involuntary tissues. These nerves are specialised - form the autonomic nervous system.
  134. What makes up the peripheral nervous system?
    Spinal nerves and cranial nerves
  135. In spinal nerve anatomy, what does C, T, L and S stand for?
    Cervical, thoracic, lumber and sacral.
  136. What are the 6 parts of the mammalian spinal cord?
    • Dorsal column = somatic and visceral neurons (cell bodies)
    • Ventral column = visceral and somatic motor neurons (cell bodies)
    • Gray commissures = cross over point of nerve fibres
    • Dorsal and Ventral funiculus = axons running towards or away from brain
    • Lateral funiculus = mixed directions
  137. What are the 5 parts of the vertebrate circulatory system?
    • heart - pump
    • arteries - resistance vessels
    • capillaries - tissue perfusion vessels
    • veins - compliant vessels and fluid stores
    • accessory organs: skeletal muscles       additional pumps
  138. What are the characteristics of close circulation?
    • High pressure
    • Fast blood return
    • Distribution of blood to tissues can be regulated
    • Blood is separated from interstitial fluids
  139. What are the characteristics of open circulation?
    • Low pressure
    • Slow blood/fluid return
    • Difficult to regulate blood flow
    • Blood/fluids directly feed cells
  140. What determines change in mean arterial pressure?
    Cardiac output multiplied by resistance at arterioles (total peripheral resistance)
  141. How does the structure of arteries, capillaries and veins.
    • Arteries are thicker with low compliance
    • Capillaries are very thin with no compliance
    • Veins are thin, elastic and very compliant.
  142. What is tonicity?
    Cell behaviour in a solution (i.e. shrink or swell) within a particular concentration of non-permeating solutes.
  143. What is osmosis?
    The net movement of water across a semipermeable barrier
  144. What is osmolality?
    The total amount of solute (mol/kg) per unit volume (L)
  145. What is osmolarity/
    The total amount of solute (mM/M) per unit volume (L)
  146. What happens to a cell that is exposed to an isotonic solution and why?
    No net change in the cell because the total number of nonpermeable particles is equal on both sides of the cell.
  147. What happens to a cell that is exposed to a hypotonic solution?
    The cell will swell because the total number of non permeable particles is greater in the cell so water will move into the cell
  148. What happens to a cell that is exposed to a hypertonic solution?
    The cell will shrink because the total number of non-permeating particles is greater in the extracellular fluid so water moves out of the cell.
  149. The accumulation of a hormone secreted by an endocrine gland then acts on that gland to reduce further hormone secretion. This is an example of what?
    Negative feedback
  150. Which of the following are voltage gated?
    Glucose transporter
    Na+ channel
    Na/K ATPase
    K+ channel
    Na+ channel and K+ channel
  151. What are four characteristics of primary active transport?
    • The rate of influx of a molecule or ion displays saturation kinetics
    • Directly requires energy in the form of ATP
    • Transport of molecules against a concentration gradient
    • Generally highly selective for a given molecule/ion
  152. Passive diffusion of an ion or permeable molecule displays what properties?
    The rate of influx of a molecule or ion is directly proportional to the concentration gradient, molecules move down their concentration gradient, generally highly selective for a given molecule/ion, no energy is required.
  153. Semipermeable means what?
    The cell membrane is selectively permeable to certain solutes.
  154. What is the Donnan Equilibrium?
    A state of electrochemical equilibrium that is achieved because two fluid filled compartments are separated by a semipermeable membrane that is permeable to only some of the ions present.
  155. What does physiological ecology study?
    Adaptations to the environment (e.g. drought tolerance)
  156. What does evolutionary physiology study?
    Origins of a physiological trait (character reconstruction, cladistics)
  157. What does comparative physiology study?
    Considers 'function' in all animals (subsets human physiology, avain physiology)
  158. What does mechanistic physiology study?
    Emphasises mechanisms (firefly example)
  159. What is Krogh's principle?
    For such a large number of problems there will be some animal of choice, or a few such animals, on which it can be most conveniently studied.
  160. What are temperature conformers?
    Animals that allow their internal environment to vary when their external environment changes. Known as ectotherms, which are poikilothermic.
  161. What are temperature regulators?
    Animals that hold their internal environment constant despite changes to their external environment. Known as endotherms,  which are homothermic.
  162. What structures to cells use to maintain ion differences between the inside and outside of the cell?
    Transporters and pumps
  163. What is the function of the Na+/K+ pump. In terms of ion distribution, what does this pump establish? What ions does this pump transport?
    The Na+/K+ pump establishes the concentration gradient for Na+ and K+ in nearly all cells. The pump transports 3 Na+ ions out of a cell for every 2 K+ ions into a cell. The pump uses ATP to do this because it is pumping ions against their gradient. The Na+/K+ pump is sometimes described as an action potential pump because of the difference in net charge pumped out of the cell.
  164. If an ion diffuses across a cell membrane, what gradient is being dissipated and what gradient is being developed?
    The concentration gradient is being dissipated. The electrical gradient is being developed.
  165. What does the Nernst equation define?
    What the effect of an ion, with a given concentration gradient, that is permeable to a cell membrane, will have on the membrane potential that arises when ions move down their electrochemical gradients. The membrane potential at which the ions stop moving is the potential at which the ion is in electrochemical equilibrium, or to put it another way, its equilibrium potential.
  166. When does Vm = 0?
    Whenever ion conc out= ion conc in because the concentration gradient is eliminated and thus the principle driving force is lost and as a consequence no potential is established.
  167. What is the cause of a local response?
    Local response is related to an insufficient depolarisation that leads to a failure in exciting enough Na+ channels to active that they are able to continue to depolarise a cell so as to further active more Na+ channels.
  168. What are the parts of the avian digestive system?
    Oesophagus, crop, liver, proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas, intestine, cloaca
  169. What is the buccal cavity?
    The bit the tongue of birds rests in, like their beak
  170. What is the purpose of the crop?
    Temporary storage of good so birds can gorge. Large diameter for whole foodstuffs.
  171. What is the purpose of the proventriculus?
    Glandular stomach, secretion of mucous HCl and digestive enzymes, and enzymatic breakdown of food.
  172. What is the purpose of the gizzard?
    Teeth equivalent, used for grinding/breaking up food. Functions through muscular contractions.
  173. What is the purpose of the duodenum? (also small intestine, jujenum and ilium)
    U shaped loop, site of digestion and absorption.
  174. What is the purpose of the large intestine?
    Water and electrolyte absorption
  175. What is the purpose of the caecum?
    Site of fermentation, digestion and absorption - enzymatic breakdown of cellulose.
  176. What is the purpose of the cloaca?
    Receives waste from digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.
  177. What is the purpose of the accessory organs?
    • Liver - bile production
    • Pancreas - digestive enzymes to small intestine to aid acid neutralisation