PSYC 1100 Section 2.6 Practical Applications of Conditioning Procedures: Behavior Modification/Thera

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rolliespring
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PSYC 1100 Section 2.6 Practical Applications of Conditioning Procedures: Behavior Modification/Thera
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2013-11-11 10:58:15
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psych
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Sec 2.6
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  1. Behavior Modification
    • This is the general term for the use of operant and classical conditioning methods for practical application
    • - institutional settings (drug rehab centers, psychiatric hospitals, prisons)
    • - education settings
    • - the workplace
    • - therapy

    When behavior modification is used in therapy, it is often referred to as "Behavior Therapy"
  2. How are new responses acquired in operant conditioning?
    • Shaping - learning by successive approximations of the response
    • - approximation: getting the subject closer to the desired response
    • Backward Shaping - a behavior modification technique; with a chain of sequenced behaviors, you train by starting at the end and working backwards
    • - completely make the bed, except for the pillows, then the person has to complete the last step; reinforced for completing
    • - next, the bed is made except for the pillows and the bedspread; reinforced for completing again
    • - each successive step, less is done
  3. The Use of Punishment and Omission
    • Punishment: S presented, R decreases
    • - punishment is used to decrease an undesirable response. However, punishment can have unintended consequences, such as social reinforcements induction of aggression
    • Omission (time out): S removed, R decreases
    • - Time out or omission is used as an alternative for suppression of behavior
  4. Alternative Reinforcement Methods
    • Token Economy¬†- System that uses generalized reinforcers; earn points by engaging in particular behaviors, later cash in the points for other reinforcers (e.g. TV access, better food); common in institutional settings
    • - the "token" can be points, poker chips etc.
    • - positive reinforcement run by general reinforcement
  5. Premack Principle
    • High probability activities can be used to reinforce low probability activities in an unconstrained environment
    • Raking leaves => low probability¬†
    • Going to a rock concert => high probability
    • "If you rake the leaves in the yard I will pay for you to go to the concert"
    • - difference between token: barter system, token accumulates points
  6. Behavioral Treatments for Phobias
    • - Intense fear
    • Types of treatments:
    • Flooding - direct, intense exposure to phobic stimulus, to induce extinction; e.g. force someone who has elevator phobia to use the elevator in a skyscraper repeatedly
    • - avoidance behavior makes it difficult to extinct, most people won't volunteer to do so
    • Systematic desensitization - patient learns to relax, then gradually learns to associate the relaxed state with the phobic stimulus; also known as counterconditioning; this is one of the most successful methods used for psychological therapies
    • - you're trying to condition a state(comfort/neutral state)incompatible with the phobia¬†
    • - associate the phobia with the relaxing state gradually

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