PSYC 1100 Section 2.7 Motivation

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Author:
rolliespring
ID:
246310
Filename:
PSYC 1100 Section 2.7 Motivation
Updated:
2013-12-07 12:02:57
Tags:
psych
Folders:
PSYC,1100
Description:
Sec 2.7
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  1. Motivation, Emotion and Stress
    • Different but related ways of viewing the same behavioral conditions
    • - motivation: emphasize how behavioral processes regulate internal and external environment; behavior can control presentation or proximity of stimuli
    • - emotion: emphasizes the internal stimuli, perceptions and cognitions associated with motivationally-relevant situations
    • - stress: emphasizes that motivational conditions can present a challenge to normal psychological and physiological function
  2. Motivation
    • the process of which organisms control the proximity or availability of stimuli
    • Phases of motivated behavior:
    • Instrumental (lever press) => consummatory (consume food)

    • Aspects of motivated behavior:
    • activational and directional aspects
  3. Aspects of Motivation
    • Directional: behavior is directed towards or away from particular stimuli
    • - avoiding and seeking access to 
    • Activational: motivated behavior is characterized by a high degree of vigor, persistance, effort
    • - you overcome something that stops you
  4. What's the relation between instrumental/operant behavior and motivational processes?
    Motivational view of reinforcement(view chart)

    • Organisms act to regulate their environment
    • - they deliver appetitive motivational stimuli to themselves (pos. reinforcement)
    • - they prevent appetitive stimuli from being removed (omission)
    • - they act to turn off or remove aversive stimuli (neg. reinforcement)
    • - they do not do the things that result in delivery of aversive stimuli (punishment)
  5. Activational and Directional Aspects pf Motivation
    • Dopamine (DA) in brain is very important for activational aspects of reinforcement, across various stimuli
    • - e.g. DA helps determine how much organisms works for food; it is like the "motor" that drives motivated behavior; can be impaired in depressed people.
    • In terms of directional aspects of motivation, the neural circuits are specific (opposed to being general) to each motivational stimulus
    • - i.e. different mechanism control seeking of food, water, sex, other types of sensory (motivational) stimulations
  6. Factors regulating Food Intake
    • Homeostasis: regulation of physiological functions within limits (i.e. heart rate, blood pressure) (similar to a thermostat in a house)
    • - glucostasis: when glucose is low you eat
    • - lipo stasis: body defends its lipid supplies (stored energy); our body evolved to adapt food scarcity, not for food stored available in the fridge
    • - body weight regulation: body defends a certain weight
    • - stomach distension: an empty signal turns meal on, a full signal turns meal off; people who binge eat aren't necessary overweight, vice versa

    • Other factors:
    • - taste: dominates many other factors
    • - conditioning(situation, time of day): social factors (seeing people eat makes you want to eat)

    • What structures control food intake?
    • 1. Periphery
    • - liver and stomach
    • - hormones; insulin and CCK (suppresses food intake) 
    • 2. Brain
    • - especially the hypothalamus(motivation)
  7. Appetite Suppressant Drugs
    • Many act on hypothalamus
    • Amphetamine (used to be appetite suppressor, but may cause cardiovascular problems), phenylpropanolamine:
    • Act on DA in perifornical hypothalamus (PFH, part of the hypothalamus)
    • Fenfluramine (stimulant): acts on serotonin, facilitates (5-HT) in paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN), regulated appetite
    • - all of the drugs above can develope tolerance

    Rimonabant: a new experimental drug (now off marker), acts to block cannabinoid receptors (e.g THC (found in marjuana, binds to receptors) in body and brain). Suppresses appetite, but produces anxiety and other psychiatric side effects

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