Geology 110 Final

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Geology 110 Final
2013-11-11 13:54:37

Geo Final
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  1. What are the negatively charged subatomic particles in an atom?
  2. What subatomic particles have a neutral charge?
  3. Atoms that have gained or lost one or more electrons in order to achieve stability in their electron clouds are known as what?
  4. What are the positively charged subatomic particles in an atom?
  5. The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is known as what?
    Atomic Mass
  6. Atoms that have a variable number of neutrons in their nucleus are known as what?
  7. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines what?
    Atomic Number
  8. What are two types of bonding?
    Ionic and Covalent
  9. To what physical property of minerals does Mohs' scale apply?
  10. Which of the following is not part of the definition of a mineral?
  11. What mineral class includes the feldspars and pyroxenes?
  12. What mineral class includes pyrite and galena?
  13. What type of bonding is associated with most silicate minerals?
    Covalent Bonding
  14. Which mineral reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid?
    Calcite (Calcium in Limestone)
  15. What mineral is used for manufacturing drywall?
  16. What mineral is mined for lead ore?
  17. What are the two most abundant elements in Earth's crust?
    Oxygen and Silica
  18. What type of silicate structure typically is associated with the mineral olivine?
    Single Tetrahedral
  19. What type of silicate structure typically is associated with the mineral biotite?
    Sheet Structures
  20. What igneous rock texture refers to microscopic crystals?
  21. What igneous rock texture refers to plainly visible crystals?
  22. What interference is usually madeĀ for aphantic igneous rocks?
    The rocks cooled quickly at the Earth's surface.
  23. What magma compositions crystallize at the highest temperature?
  24. Who came up with the idea that silicate minerals crystallize in a systematic way from a magma?
  25. What is the name of a phaneritic felsic rock?
  26. What is the name of an aphantic mafic rock?
  27. What is another name for volcanic glass?
  28. True or False; Felsic minerals crystallize at higher temperatures.
  29. How is porphyritic texture in igneous rock interpreted?
    Two stages of cooling
  30. True or False; Continental crust is dominantly felsic in composition?
  31. A large (>100km) discordant intrusive igneous pluton is known as what?
  32. A discordant tabular (planar) intrusive igneous pluton is known as what?
  33. A concordant tabular intrusive igneous pluton is known as what?
  34. What is typically the last mineral to crystallize from a silica-rich magma?
  35. True or False; The year 1816 was known as "the year without a summer?"
  36. What type of igneous rock composition generally is associated with ocean crust?
  37. Approximately how many volcanoes are there on Earth?
  38. What is the nickname given to the volcanic area around the Pacific Ocean?
    "Ring of Fire"
  39. What type of volcano is Mt. St. Helens?
  40. What type of volcanoes are found in Hawai'i?
    Shield Volcanoes
  41. What is another name for volcanic mud flows?
  42. What type of features are caused by phreatic (steam) eruptions?
  43. Which of the two types of magma tend to be most explosive? (Mafic or Felsic)
  44. Which of the following is the mildest form of volcanic eruption?
  45. What is another name for the fiery ash clouds that can flow downhill during volcanic eruptions?
    Nuee ardentes
  46. What volcanic features form when volcanoes collapse into their underlying magma chambers?
  47. The eruption of what volcano in 1815 is associated with the deaths of 90,000 people and caused the "year without a summer" in 1816?
    Mt. Tambora
  48. What criterion is used for classifying detrital sedimentary rocks like; claystone, siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate?
    Grain Size
  49. What "survivor mineral" commonly is the major component of most sandstone and silt beds?
  50. What is the largest size that a sand grain can be?
  51. What is theĀ principal mineral (or biomineral) in limestone?
  52. What is the difference between breccia and conglomerate?
    Breccia has angular clasts, and conglomerates have rounded clasts.
  53. What "organic" sedimentary rock is composed of compressed plant debris?
  54. What "chemical" sedimentary rock commonly is deposited as an evaporite?
    Rock Gypsum
  55. What is the mineral composition of chert?
  56. What type of depositional environment generally is associated with coal?
    Marsh or Swamp
  57. The idea that younger rocks overlie older rocks is known as what?
  58. The phrase "the present is the key to the past" is associated with what geologic concept?
  59. What type of unconformity is associated with the deposition of sedimentary rocks over igneous rocks?
  60. What type of unconformity is associated with deposition of sedimentary rocks over other sedimentary rocks with evidence of angular discordance?
    Angular unconformity
  61. What is the age of Earth?
    4.5 Ga (Billion years)
  62. The technique of comparing strata (rock layers) from place to place based on their fossil content is known as what?
    stratigraphic correlation
  63. Which of the following is not a mechanism for heat transference?
    -Radiation, Conduction, Convection, Insulation
  64. What type of metamorphism is associated with proximity (closeness) to igneous intrusives?
    Contact Metamorphism
  65. What type of metamorphism is associated with the collision of continents and mountain building?
    Regional Metamorphism
  66. What is the parent rock of quartzite?
    Quartz Sandstone
  67. What is the parent rock of slate?
  68. What is the parent rock of marble?
  69. What metamorphic texture is associated with the alignment of mineral grains?
  70. True or False; Siccar Point in Scotland was one of the localities where an angular unconformity was first described.
  71. What type of radioactive decay results in the emission of a helium nucleus?
    Alpha Decay
  72. What mineral is used most commonly in uranium-lead age dating of felsic igneous rocks?
  73. What was the age of the solar system as determined from meteorites in early isotope-geochronology studies?
    4.55 Billion years
  74. After three half lives, how much of he original parent material would be left in a radioactive element?
    • -1/8
    • -(1/2^(number of half lives))
  75. What layer of Earth makes up about 75% of the volume of the planet?
  76. What is the preferred explanation for the low velocity zone in the upper mantle?
    Zone of partial melting
  77. What is the composition of the inner core?
    Solid Iron and Nickel
  78. What is the composition of the outer core?
    Molten Iron and Nickel
  79. What is the significance of the D" layer at the base of the mantle?
    • -Source of mantle plumes
    • -Subducted slabs penetrate to the D" layer of the mantle
    • -in this layer are heated at the core-mantle boundary
    • (All of the above)
  80. What type of seismic wave travels with the most rapid velocity?
    P-wave (primary)
  81. What type of seismic wave cannot travel through liquids?
  82. What type of oceanic wave can be generated by shallow-focused sub-sea earthquakes?
  83. What scale is preferred for measuring the amount of energy released by an earthquake?
    Moments magnitude scale
  84. What scale is commonly used by insurance adjustors to relate earthquake damage based on the behavior of building and other structures?
    Modified Mercalli scale
  85. How many M4 earthquakes would it take to release the same amount of energy released in a M8 earthquake?
    about 1,000,000
  86. Generally, how many seismometers does it take to determine the epicenter of an earthquake?
  87. What is the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake?
    Focus is where the earthquake ruptures, and epicenter is at the surface, above the focus.
  88. The 2010 Haiti earthquake recorded one of the largest number of fatalities associated with an earthquake. Approx. how many people were killed?
    More than 300,000
  89. How rapidly do tsunamis travel in the open ocean?
    More than 800 km/hr
  90. Which of the following generalizations about the mantle is considered to be correct?
    • - Pressure increases with depth
    • - Temperature increases with depth
    • - Seismic velocity increases with depth (except low velocity zone)
    • - (All of the above)
  91. What type of fold generally has beds that dip away from the axial plane?
  92. What two components make up a bed's attitude?
    Strike and Dip
  93. What type of geologic structure has the oldest beds in the center?
  94. What type of forces generally are associated with folding?
  95. What type of material behavior is associated with folding?
    Ductile behavior
  96. What type of fault is the San Andreas Fault of western North America?
    Right-lateral strike-slip fault
  97. KNOW****
    • - Normal fault
    • - Thrust fault
    • - Reverse fault
    • - Strike-slip fault
    • - Horst (extrusion due to fault (goes up)
    • - Graben (Piece of land falls down' due to faults) (opposite of Horst)
  98. What type of force is associated with thrust faulting?
  99. True or False; Ancient volcanoes are found in southeastern Missouri.
  100. True or False; Oceans once covered much of Missouri?
  101. True or False; Glaciers once extend into Missouri during the Ice Ages.
  102. True or False; The oldest rocks in Missouri are 4.5 billion years old.
  103. What is the name for a fold that has only one limb?