BILD 3 Midterm 2: Animals

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  1. Main characteristics of ANIMALS:
    • Eukaryotic
    • Multicellular
    • Heterotrophs
    • No cell walls
    • Motile
    • Tissues
    • Non-Protists
    • 34 Major Phyla
  2. Porifera
    • THE FIRST ANIMALS!
    • Sponges:
    • - No tissues
    • - Different cell types. Rely on others for survival. Specialized cells but not in groups; individual (not organs)
    • - Heterotrophs w/internal digestion
    • - Related to protist Choanoflagellates
  3. Phylum: Cycliophora
    Discovered in 1995, singly phyla that attaches to mouth parts of lobster
  4. Choanoflagellates & Sponges
    (similarities & differences)
    • Similar:
    • - Immobile (sessile)
    • - Trap food particles in water current
    • - Body shape (w/flagella)

    • Different:
    • - Sponges are NON-protist animals
    • - Sponges are multicellular, choanoflagellates are colonial
    • Image Upload 1
  5. 1st Evolved body plan of animals:
    Tissues
    • - Embryonic Tissues
    • - Diploblasts (2) Ectoderm & endoderm
    • ex. Cnidarians (Jellyfish) & Ctenophores (sea anemone)
    • - Triploblasts (3) + Mesoderm
  6. Cnidarians
    • Jellyfish, sea anemones, corals & sea pens
    • Cnidocytes= Stinging cells
    • Jellyfish Lake: DONT sting b/c live off algae
    • Box Jellyfish: MOST POISONOUS
    • Nomaticists= Barbs -> Neurotoxic -> Venom
    • Gastrovascular Cavity= Opening. NO DIGESTIVE TRACT. Traps food, enzymes released to digest it alive.
    • POLYP & MEDUSA body types.
    • Corals up close have small Polyps (non-motile)
    • Image Upload 2
  7. Triploblasts: Function of the 3 tissues
    • 1. Ectoderm= Skin & nervous system
    • 2. Endoderm= Digestive system/structures
    • 3. Mesoderm= Circulatory system, muscle, bone
  8. 2nd Evolved body plan of animals:
    Symmetry
    • Symmetry & Cephalization (neural & sensory organs)
    • 1. Asymmetry: No plane. ex Sponge
    • 2. Radial Symmetry: DIPLOBLASTS
    • At least 2 planes. ex Cnidarians
    • 3. Bilateral Symmetry: TRIPLOBLASTS
    • (Except Echinodermata (Starfish)
    • 1 Plane. ex lizards, humans
    • - Distinct head & tail
    • - Complete digestive tract
    • - Swim faster
    • - Specialization
  9. Phylum Echinodermata:
    • Starfish
    • Triploblasts
    • Larvae: Bilateral symmetry
    • Adult: Radial symmetry
  10. 3rd Evolved body plan of animals:
    Body Cavity
    • Coelom= Tube-within-a-tube body plan
    • a) Acoelomates have no body cavity
    • ex. playhelminthes (flatworms)
    • b) Pseudocoelomates have body cavity parially lined w/mesoderm
    • ex. nematoda (roundworms)
    • c) Coelom have body cavity completely lined w/mesoderm
    • ex. All bilateral animals & vertibrates
    • Image Upload 3
  11. 4th Evolved body plan of animals:
    Protostome & Deuterostome Development
    • Cleavage= Zygote undergoes rapid divisions early in development, right after fertilization
    • Gastrulation= Ball of cells formed by cleavage forms gut & embryonic tissues

    • Protostome = "Mouth First"
    • - Pore becomes mouth
    • - Spiral cleavage
    • Mneumonic: Pro-Twirler!

    • Deuterostome = "Second Mouth"
    • - Pre becomes anus
    • - Radial cleavage
    • Mneumonic: RA-DI-AL = DEU-TER-O
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  12. Animalia "Supergroup":
    LOPHOTROCHOZOA & 4 Phyla:
    • 1. Rotifera
    • 2. Platyhelminthes
    • 3. Annelida
    • 4. Mollusca

    • - PROTOSTOMES
    • - Continuous growth
    • - Lophophore: Ring of tentacles surrounding mouth that aid in feeding
    • OR
    • - Trochophore: Larvae: Rings of cilia around midsection
    • ex. mollusca, annelids
    • Image Upload 6
  13. Lophotrochozoa:
    (Protostomes, Continuous Growth)

    Phyla- Platyhelminthes
    • FLATWORMS & TAPEWORMS!
    • - Acoelomates (NO coelom)
    • - Mostly water, some damp terrestrial
    • - Triploblasts (3 tissues)
    • - Bilateral but NO MOUTH & ANUS, just gastrovascular cavity w/ one opening
    • - NO NEED FOR CIRCULATORY SYSTEM b.c most cells very close to outside exnv so gas exchanges on surface
    • - Turbellaria= Bright, marine, STAY AWAY FROM! Hermaphrodite-Penis fencers
    • - Lancet Liver Fluke= Parasite, mind control, ants, cows
    • - TAPEWORMS= Don't have mouth (pharynx) but  SCOLEX w/teeth & barbs to latch onto GI tract. Body absorbs nutrients, doesn't have own GI
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    Image Upload 8
  14. Lophotrochozoa:

    Phyla- Annelids
    • - Complete coelem & circulatory system
    • - Body is series of FUSED RINGS

    • Classes:
    • 1. Polychaetes= Have bristle-like chaete (hair)
    • 2. Oligochaetes= Have no chaete
    • ex. earthworm
    • 3. Leeches= Ectoparasites (parasite on OUTSIDE of body)
    • Image Upload 9

    Image Upload 10
  15. Lophotrochozoa:
    (Protostomes, Continuous Growth)

    Phyla- Mollusca
    • 3 Main parts:
    • - Mantle (covering/shell)
    • - Muscular foot (for food capture/movement)
    • - Visceral mass (contains organs)
    • Most MARINE some TERRESTRIAL
    • Soft body, most protected by hard shell
    • Radula= Used to feed (like spiky cat tongue)

    • Classes:
    • 1. Chitons
    • 2. Gastropods (Snails/Slugs/Cone Snails)
    • Ciphen= Cone snails use to take in water, detect prey, harpoon w/neurotoxic mix
    • 3. Bivalvia (Clams/Scallops/Muscles)
    • 4. Cephalapods (Squids/Octopus)
    • ex Chambered Nautilus & Cuttlefish= Great eyesight & mimic colors
    • Image Upload 11
  16. Animalia "Supergroup":

    ECDYSOZOA
    (& 2 main Phyla)
    • - Molting= Growth in STAGES by shedding exoskeleton
    • - Largest b/c includes INSECTS

    • 1. NEMATODA
    • ex. roundworms
    • 2. ARTHROPODA
    • ex. 4 groups including INSECTS
  17. Ecdysozoa:
    (Segmented growth)

    Phyla - NEMATODA
    • ROUNDWORMS!
    • - Important decomposers & nutrient cyclers
    • - C. elegans -> E.coli feeders. Hermaphrodites, they have EXACT # of CELLS ~ 900-1000, so great for research. (1 mutation can see change in behavior)
    • - Also responsible for ELEPHANTITIS
    • Image Upload 12
  18. Ecdysozoa:
    (Segmented growth)

    Phyla - ARTHROPODA
    4 Subphyla:
    • 1. Cheliceriformes
    • =Spiders, crabs, scorpions, ticks
    • 2. Myriapoda
    • =Centipedes & millipedes
    • 3. Hexapoda
    • =Insects (6 legs)
    • 4. Crustacea
    • =Crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp
  19. 4 Key innovations in Arthropods:
    • 1. FLIGHT
    • escape from predators & migration ->Diversification
    • 2. EXOSKELETON
    • Protection & attachment for muscles
    • Allowed to DRY OUT (terrestrial)
    • 3. APPENDAGES
    • Multiple. Complex movements & many functions (walk, run, burrow, swim, fight)
    • 4. COMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS
    • larva-pupa-later pupa-emerging adult-adult
  20. 4 Most diverse classes of HEXAPODA
    • Mneumonic: Large, hairy, dangly coconuts
    • Ptera= "Wings"

    • 1. Lepidoptera= Butterflies & moths
    • Lepido="flake or scale" Monarchs migrate thousands of miles from Ricky Mtns to Central Mex. Takes many generations
    • 2. Hymenoptera=  Bees, wasps, ants
    • Hymeno="membrane" Most social. Some have slaves & herd others (parasitic ants)
    • 3. Diptera= Flies
    • Di="2"
    • 4. Coleoptera= Beetles
    • Coleo="Sheath"
    • MOST DIVERSE. THOUSANDS of species just on one tree!
  21. Which of these are life-stages of cnidarians?

    A. Zooxanthellae
    B. A & D
    C. Medusa
    D. Polyp
    E. Choanocyte
    B. A & D
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Calcium carbonate shells & thread-like pseudopods are characteristic of this organism that makes up a very important part of the fossil record:

    A. alveolates
    B. euglenids
    C. foraminiferans
    D. excavates
    E. radiolarians
    C. foraminiferans
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Damage to the embryonic ectoderm would show up as damage to which adult body tissues?

    A. body cavity linings
    B. circulatory tissuee. muscles
    C. skeletal tissue
    D. nervous tissue
    D. nervous tissue

    Ectoderm = Skin & nervous tissue
    Endoderm = Digestive system/structures
    Mesoderm = Circulatory, muscle, bone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
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246325
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BILD 3 Midterm 2: Animals
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BILD 3 UCSD oganismic evolutionary biology
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