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What are the stages of the Tuckman's group development process?
- Five stages:
- 1. forming
- 2. stroming
- 3. norming
- 4. performing
- 5. adjourning
What are the key issues in each stage of the Tuckman's group development process?
- 1. Forming- members are uncertain and anxious. As individuals they wonder how they fit in and as a group wonder their purpose for being there.
- 2. Storming- power struggles; individuals try to determine their role and the group struggles to figure out why they are fighting over who is in charge and their individual goals.
- 3. Norming- finding group cohesiveness; individuals try to determine what others expect of them and the group determines if they can agree on roles and work together.
- 4. Performing- worries about performance; individuals wonder if they can perform their best and the group wonders if they can perform the job properly.
- 5. Adjourning- finding out what is next and helping individuals transition out.
How are norms developed?
- developed through a various combination of four ways:
- 1. explicit statements by supervisors or co-workers
- 2. critical events in group's history
- 3. primacy
- 4. carryover behaviors from past situations
What is the reason norms are enforced?
- -help the group/organization survive
- - clarify behavioral expectations
- -help employees avoid embarrassing situations
- - clarify group's central values and identity
What are the functional roles performed by group members? Describe them.
1. task roles: roles that enable the group to define, clarify, and pursue a common goal (task-oriented behavior)
2. maintenance roles: roles of one that shows support and is constructive of interpersonal relationships (relationship building behavior)
Describe the differing communication styles of men and women in workgroups. What can be done to ensure everyone's view is presented?
- - Men tend to be more aggressive when communicating.
- - Men tend to interrupt women more than other men.
- - Men and Women tend to be aggressive with interruptions in a male dominant group.
- - Men are more against women being in their groups and tend to be negative and hostile towards them whereas women are not as against having men in their groups and are more neutral towards them.
- - affirmative steps need to be taken to ensure everyone gets to voice their thought and to ensure the work environment foes not become hostile and possible into one of harassment.
Discuss the Asch effect. Include the 'managerial perspective' of Asch's experiment.
- - an experiment in which individuals looked at 12 sets of cards and were asked to identify which line matched the standard line. Asch had selected certain individuals to purposefully select the wrong line to see how many individuals would follow the majority opinion, even if it was incorrect, or select their own choice.
- - the experiment has shown both high and low degrees of blind conformity across countries.
- - internationally, collectivist countries produce higher conformity levels than individualistic countries.
- - managers need to be aware that the Asch effect exists.
- - when members of a group strive to have unanimity and they overlook realistic alternatives.
- - can deteriorate mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgement.
- - can have negative results on decision making
- - research has shown that groups with moderate amounts of cohesiveness produce better results than those with high amounts.
What are the ways to prevent Groupthink?
- 6 ways:
- 1. each member be a critical evaluator and voice objections and doubts.
- 2. top levels executives should not use committees to rubber-stamp decisions that have already been made.
- 3. different groups with different leaders should follow the same policy questions.
- 4. outsiders and subgroups should be used to add in different perspectives.
- 5. assign someone the role of devil's advocate.
- 6. after reaching a consensus, everyone should rethink their position and check for flaws.
Why do work teams fail?
- -often fail as a result of management mistakes, problems among the team, and unrealistic expectations that lead to frustrations.
- - managers generally make mistakes that involve doing a poor job creating a supportive environment for teams and teamwork.
- - team members often try to take on too much too quickly and place emphasis of the results and not the work going into them. they can have a lack of trust which results in poor team work.
- - with a poor environment, lack of trust, and taking on too much leading to frustration can cause members to walk away from the team and leave them unlikely to succeed.
Discuss the concept of cooperation and the research that supports it.
- - happens when individuals' efforts are integrated to achieve a collective objective; when they are working together.
- - research has shown:
- - cooperation is superior to competition and individualistic efforts in promoting achievement and productivity
- - cooperation diminishes as the size of the group gets larger.
Describe the guidelines for building and maintaining trust.
- 6 guidelines:
- 1. communication: key for relationships; you should keep members informed of new information and policies, be truthful with them, and provide them with feedback.
- 2. support: provide members with support; be approachable and available for members to come to you for help, advice and support.
- 3. respect: gain team members respect and give them your respect.
- 4. be fair: give credit and recognition to those who deserve it and base evaluations and appraisals on performance without impartial feelings.
- 5. be predictable: be consistent in daily affairs and keep both expressed and implied promises.
- 6. be competent: show others you are capable of performing and getting the job done.
- trust is anchored to credibility; it cannot be demanded, it has to be earned.
What is cohesiveness?
- - a sense of "we-ness" that helps a group stay together.
- - Cohesive group members stay together because either they enjoy each others company or they need each other to accomplish the goal or a combination of both.
What are the types of group cohesiveness?
- 2 types:
- 1. socio-emotional cohesiveness: a sense of togetherness based on emotional satisfaction
- 2. instrumental cohesiveness: a sense of togetherness based on mutual dependency needed to get the job done.
What are the lessons from group cohesiveness research studies?
- The lessons have made connections between cohesiveness and performance.
- - is a small but significant cohesive performance effect that is stronger for smaller groups than larger.
- - commitment to the task has to most powerful impact of the cohesiveness performance linkage.
- - performance cohesiveness link is stronger than cohesiveness performance link thus showing success binds a group together more.
- - evidence has led researchers to the conclusion that boosting a groups pride to enhance performance is not likely to be effective.
What are the steps managers can use to enhance the two types of cohesiveness?
- 1. to enhance socio-emotional cohesiveness:
- - keep the group small
- - strive for a public image to increase status of belonging
- - encourage interaction and cooperation
- - emphasize member's common characteristics and interests
- - point out environmental threats to rally the group
- 2. to enhance instrumental cohesiveness:
- - regularly update and clarify group goals
- - give members vital tasks
- - channel members special talents towards achieving the goal
- - recognize and reinforce members contributions
- - frequently remind members they need each other to complete the job
What is the rational model of decision making and what is its assumption?
- - a logical four-step approach to decision making.
- 1. identify problem
- 2. generate alternative solutions
- 3. evaluate alternatives and select a solution
- 4. implement and evaluate chosen solution.
- - the assumption is that managers posses all the information needed to make a decision.
What is the normative model of decision making and its assumption?
- - a nonrational model that describes the process managers actually use when making a decision.
- - is guided by the decision makers bound rationality which are constraints that restrict rational decision making.
- - because of these restraints it is assumed the decision maker will satisfice and chose the easily available option without looking for alternatives.
What are the 8 decision-making biases?
- 1. availability heuristic: the tendency to make a decision based off of information that is in your memory.
- 2. representativeness heuristic: tendency to asses the likelihood of an event based on an impression of similar events.
- 3. confirmation bias: subconsciously deciding something before investigating why it is right and then finding supporting information for it and disregarding non supportive information.
- 4. anchoring bias: decision is influenced by the first amount of information received about it even if irrelevant.
- 5. overconfident bias: tendency to be overconfident about estimates/forecasts
- 6. hindsight bias: occurs when knowledge of an outcome leads us to believe in a probability that we could have predicted the outcome earlier.
- 7. framing bias: tendency to consider risks about gains differently than risks pertaining to losses.
- 8. escalation of commitment bias: tendency to stick to an ineffective course of action when it is unlikely that the bad situation can be reversed.
What are the steps to be taken while conducting evidence-based decision making?
- 5 steps:
- 1. determine the problem or opportunity
- 2. gather internal data/evidence and evaluate relevancy/validity
- 3. gather external data/evidence from published research
- 4. gather views from stakeholders and consider ethical implications
- 5. integrate and appraise all data and make decision
Describe the four general decision-making styles.
- 1. directive: low tolerance for ambiguity and oriented toward task and technical concerns; efficient and logical
- 2. analytical: high ambiguity tolerance, task and technical concerns; overanalyze situations and take longer to make decision but good in new or uncertain situations.
- 3. conceptual: high ambiguity tolerance, focus on people and social concerns; rely on intuition and discussions are are risk takers.
- 4. behavioral: low ambiguity tolerance, focus on people and social concerns; supportive, receptive and avoid conflict.
- - few people have one style but a combination of them.
Describe the role of intuition in decision making.
- -intuition is judgments that come to mind on their own.
- -2 types
- 1: holistic hunch: you have a judgment/feeling about a certain decision but you can not explain why it it the right decision it just feels right.
- 2: automated experiences: judgment is based on familiar situations.
Discuss the rules that managers should follow for brainstorming.
- 7 rules:
- 1. defer judgment: do not criticize or decline an idea because it does not seem right or hasn't been used in the past.
- 2. build on the idea of others: encourage participation and build from each other
- 3. encourage crazy ideas: promote out of the box thinking
- 4. go for quantity not quality: encourages people to brainstorm and come up with many ideas
- 5. be visual: use charts and tables and different colors when doing so to grab attention.
- 6. stay focused on the topic: stay focused
- 7. one conversation at a time: do not interrupt others nor disrespect, and do not dismiss another's idea.
Describe the stages of creativity.
- 5 stages:
- 1. preparation: creativity starts from a base of knowledge; be prepared.
- 2. concentration: too much concentration can hinder creativity; allow yourself some time for breaks and distractions
- 3. incubation: done unconsciously; the mind is processing information and making associations while you are doing everyday tasks.
- 4. illumination: going through multiple things and doing multiple things to spark an idea.
- 5. verification: going through the whole process to verify, modify, or try the new idea.