Midterm 2 (missed A&P lecture)
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Which electrolyte is of critical importance to muscle contraction?
1. What is the endomysium?
2. What is the epimysium?
3. What is the perimysium?
- 1. It surrounds the cell
- 2. It surrounds the muscle
- 3. It surrounds the bundle (fascicle)
1. What is the dark band/thick filament?
2. What is the light band/thin filament?
What is the linea alba? (aponeuroses)
It is a thin fibrous sheet of connective tissue. It has muscles embedded in it.
Surgeons look for this first!
1. What does the nucchal ligament do?
2. Where does the nucchal ligament attach to?
3. What does the nucchal ligament allow for?
1. It supports the skull and cervical spine.
2. C2 (axis)
3. Allows grazing animals to lower their head, and POP it up quickly if needed.
1. Name 3 important things about the Stay apparatus?
2. If this is broken what does it likely cause?
- 1. *all rear limb joints either flex or extend at the same time. (all joints lock in 1 leg)
- *huge medial femoral condyle that it locks over. (locks stifle initially!)
- * 3 part patellar tendon
Where does the Peroneus Tertius connect to?
How many joints does it connect to?
It connects from the femur to the 3rd metatarsal bone (cannon bone), and the 4th tarsal bone.
it connects to two joints.
What happens if the Peroneus Tertius is ruptured?
The stay apparatus wont work!
If a horse is lame, always check the peroneus tertius.
1.What is a sarcomere?
2.What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum known for?
3. What is a sarcolemma?
1. contracting unit/relaxing unit in a muscle cell
2. calcium action happens here
3. covers the muscle cell (has nucleus near it)
How do you give a paralumbar/paraspinous IM injection?
Put your thumb on the dorsal spinous process. Put your index on the edge of the muscle (lateral aspect). Inject between those fingers.
What is the order of going into the abdomen?
- 1. external oblique
- 2. internal oblique
- 3. transverse abdominus
What are boundaries for the paraspinal/paralumbar injection?
last rib-----wings of ilium
go in the middle and you won't hit the kidney
1. What area is the anconeal process located?
2. Where are two synovial joints located?
2. shoulder (ball and socket), elbow (hinge)
How do epiphyseal plates/growth plates work?
They are made of cartilage. They are a site that allows for long bones to grow as the animal grows. Cartilage cells create new cartilage on the outside of the surface of the plate. Osteoblasts replace the cartilage on the inside.
*a nerve just stays on top a muscle cell. They don't touch. They just throw chemicals out
What is a neuromuscular junction?
Skeletal muscle has a neuromuscular junction. That is what tells the muscle to FUNCTION.
1. Does muscle need energy to contract and relax?
1. Yes you need energy for both!
1.What is the all or nothing principle?
2. What is recruitment?
- 1. When a muscle cell contracts, it is going to contract all the way or not at all.
2. The # of muscle cells recruited for the job determines how powerful the muscle contraction will be. (lift a pencil verses a bag of cement)
1. What is myoglobin?
2. What is hemoglobin?
1. protein molecule that is the oxygen (O2) carrier in muscle. Gives it the red color. (1 oxygen molecule)
2. O2 carried in RBC's (carries 4 oxygen molecules)
1. What is an aerobic muscle?
2. What is an anaerobic?
1. Long term, marathon muscle. Slow twitch muscle. It is oxygen consuming. It is red because myoglobin in it!
2. Explosive speed. Fast twitch muscle. It is not oxygen dependent.
Explain the difference between hyperthermia vs. fever.
- Hyperthermia occurs because the animal does not have a way to release heat. Can't cool down (environmental).
- Fever is the thermostat in your brain telling your body im diseased so turn the heat up. Fever makes WBC's better at attacking bacteria. Fever is protective.
1. What is shivering?
2. What does SLUDDEE stand for? What is it?? (parasympathetic oversenitization)
1. Small spasmodic muscle contractions. Mechanism to warm up.
2. Parasympathetic overdrive. Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Diarrhea, Dyspnea, Emesis, and Erection.
Smooth muscle has an autonomic nervous system. What are two parts?
What else does smooth muscle respond to?
- 1. Parasympathetic- rest and digest
- 2. Sympathetic- fight or flight
It also responds to hormones.
Smooth muscle has two forms. What are they?
1. Visceral- lines walls in hollow organs (intestines & uterus)
2. Multi unit- iris and ciliary body.
1. How is actin and myosin in SMOOTH MUSCLE?
2. What is the myoenteric nervous system?
1. Actin and Myosin is criss crossed.
2. nerves on the intestine.
1. What is telogen effluvium?
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