Mass Wasting ND Test 2

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Mass Wasting ND Test 2
2013-11-11 17:05:26

mass wasting
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  1. What are the different types of slope failure?
    • fall
    • slump
    • slide
  2. What are the types of falls?
    • rock falls
    • debris falls
  3. What is a fall and what does it look like?
    • can be a single rock or a large mass of rocks
    • free fall occurs
    • talus forms at the base of the cliff
  4. What is a slump and what does it look like?
    • a type of slide where downward rotation occurs along a curved surface
    • they are rotational
    • upper surface remains relatively undistrubed
    • causes accurate scars and depressions
  5. What cause slumps?
    • human activities (oversteepening of an incline)
    • erosion undercutting slopes (sea shore)
    • heavy rain & earthquakes
  6. What are slides and what do they look like?
    • when rocks/debris slide down a pre-existing surface
    • translational
    • talus common at base
  7. What is the difference between slumps and slides?
    slumps occur along a curved surface, slides do not
  8. What are the different types of sediment flow?
    • slurry
    • granular
  9. What is slurry?
    • between 20 and 40% water
    • considered saturated
    • three types: solifluction, debris flow, mud flow
  10. What is an illegal word?
  11. What is a granular flow?
    • has between 0 and 20% water
    • not saturated
    • air causes them to flow like liquid
    • five types: creep, earthflows, grain flows, debris avalanches, snow avalanches
  12. How can you prevent landslides?
    • grading: increases slope stability
    • slope support: retaining walls
  13. What is a cut and fill operation?
    • material from upper slope can be moved to the base
    • type of grading
  14. How are benches formed?
    • cut stair steps into the land
    • type of grading
  15. What are retaining walls made from?
    • concrete/brick
    • stone-filled wire baskets (gabiens)
    • series of piles of long concrete, steel, or wooden beams driven into the ground
  16. What are driving forces?
    when the weight on top of slope material changes, slope materials are pushed down
  17. What are resisting forces?
    • oppose downward movement
    • stronger materials that prevent driving forces from moving the slope down
  18. What are the forces on slope?
    • type of earth material
    • slope and topography
    • climate
    • vegitation
    • water
    • time