M.T. Chapter 14 - Endocrine System

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ams217
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M.T. Chapter 14 - Endocrine System
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2013-11-11 18:15:56
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Endocrine System
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Endocrine System
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  1. mineral salt (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carries an electrical charge in solution
    electrolyte
  2. simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
    glucose
  3. hormone produced by the pancreatic beta cells that allows body cell to use glucose for energy or store it int he liver as glycogen
    insulin
  4. known as the master gland because it regulates many body activities and stimulates other glands to secrete their own specific hormones
    pituitary gland
  5. organ containing the islets of Langerhans
    pancreas
  6. two hormones produced through the islets of Langerhans
    • glucagon - produced by alpha cells (needed when glucose is low)
    • insulin - produced by beta cells (needed when glucose is high)

    (both play important roles in regulating glucose levels)
  7. adrenal glands (CF)
    • adren/o
    • adrenal/o
  8. calcium (CF)
    calc/o
  9. secrete (CF)
    crin/o
  10. sugar, sweetness (CF)
    • gluc/o
    • glyc/o
    • glycos/o
  11. pancreas (CF)
    pancreat/o
  12. thyroid gland (CF)
    • thyr/o
    • thyroid/o
  13. poison (CF)
    toxic/o
  14. secrete (suffix)
    -crine
  15. pertaining to poison (suffix)
    -toxic
  16. outside, outward (prefix)
    exo-
  17. edematous swelling in the tissues behind the eyes cause them to protrude; caused by Graves disease
    exophthalmos
  18. decreased calcium causes muscle twitches and spasms
    tetany
  19. general term, that when used alone, refers to diabetes mellitus (DM); most common pancreatic disorder; chronic metabolic disorder of impaired carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism due to insufficient production of insulin or the body's inability to use insulin properly
    diabetes
  20. usually diagnosed in children and young adults; the body does not produce sufficient insulin
    Type 1 Diabetes
  21. condition in which the potassium level in the blood is higher than normal
    hyperkalemia
  22. excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
    obesity
  23. lower blood glucose levels by promoting its entrance into body cells and converting glucose to glycogen
    insulins
  24. treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin
    oral antidiabetics
  25. structures of the endocrine system
    • pituitary gland
    • thyroid gland
    • parathyroid
    • adrenal glands
    • pancreas
    • pineal gland
    • thymus gland
    • ovaries / testes
  26. located at the base of the brain; lies in sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
    pituitary gland
  27. benign tumor often treated with radiation therapy
    pituitary tumor
  28. one of the deadliest malignancies and accounts for 2% of diagnosed cancers in the U.S.
    pancreatic cancer
  29. signs and symptoms of Graves Disease
    • exophthalmos
    • common form of hyperthyroidism
    • production of thyroid hormone increases
    • enlarged thyroid (goiter)
    • elevated metabolic rate, abnormal weight loss, and muscular weakness
  30. signs and symptoms of Cushings Syndrome
    • hypersecretion of adrenal cortex (cortisol)
    • round, "moon-shaped" face with acne
    • muscle weakness
    • purple striated marks on skin
    • hirsutism (abnormal hair growth)
    • head and trunk grossly exaggerated
    • pencil-thin extremities
    • buffalo hump on upper back
    • peptic ulcer
    • hypertension
    • susceptibility to infection
    • anxiety and depression

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