chapter 3 *'s

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herangelwings
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246357
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chapter 3 *'s
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2013-11-11 17:16:13
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IBS 102
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chapter 3
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  1. bones are connected to one another by fibrous bands of tissue called
    ligaments
  2. muscles are attached to the bone by bands of tissue called
    tendons
  3. tough fibrous covering of the muscles and tendons (and some nerves and blood vessels) is called
    fascia
  4. hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of the long bones and serves to cusion and protect the joints is called
    articular cartilage
  5. the skeleton can be divided into these two parts
    • axial skeleton
    • appendicular skeleton
  6. the shoulder and pelvic girdles and upper and lower extremeties is the
    appendicular skeleton
  7. the skull, vertebrae and rib cage is the
    axial skeleton
  8. the shaft of the long bone
    diaphysis
  9. end of the long bone
    epiphysis
  10. the tissue that surrounds the bone is
    periosteum
  11. specialized cells in the periosteum  that provide the sensation of pain when damage occurs
    nociceptors
  12. the inner lining of the center of the bones is called
    endosteum
  13. elevation or protruberance
    tuberosity
  14. the skull is made up of these two parts
    • cranium
    • facial bones
  15. forms the anterior part of the skull and forehead
    frontal bone
  16. paired bones that form the sides of the cranium
    parietal bone
  17. forms the posterior portion of the skull
    occipital bone
  18. upper arm bone
    humerus
  19. lower medial arm bone
    ulna
  20. proximal projection of the ulna that forms the tip of the elbow
    olecranon
  21. the superior or widest bone of the pelvis
    ilium
  22. the lower, posterior  portion of the pelvic bone
    ischium
  23. the lower anterior part of the pelvic bone
    pubis or pubic bone
  24. each coxa is composed of three fused bones together that form the hip socket (acetabulum)
    • ilium
    • ischium
    • pubis or pubic bone
  25. thigh bone, upper leg bone
    femur
  26. articulates with the hipbone at the acetabulum
    femoral head
  27. kneecap, sesamoid shaped bone
    patella
  28. shin bone, lower medial leg bone
    tibia
  29. the process that extends outward at the distal end of the fibula
    malleolus
  30. immovable joints held together by fibrous cartilaginous tissue
    synarthroses 

    No ROM
  31. joints joined together by cartilage that are slightly movable
    amphiarthroses

    limited ROM
  32. joints that have free movement
    diarthroses

    full ROM
  33. another name for diarthroses
    synovial joints
  34. sacs of fluid that are located between the bones of the joint and the tendons that hold the muscles in place
    bursae
  35. three different functions the muscles in the human body are specialized in
    • skeletal muscle
    • smooth muscle
    • heart muscle
  36. three types of muscles
    • agonist muscles
    • antagonist muscles
    • synergist muscles
  37. muscles which are the primary movers
    agonist muscles
  38. muscles which have the opposite action of the agonist
    antagonist muscles
  39. groups of muscles that contract together to accomplish the same body movement
    synergist muscles
  40. strong, broad, flat sheet of fibrous connective tissue that serves as a tendon is
    aponeurosis
  41. have a characteristic membranous lining and are the covering of certain tendons
    tendon sheaths
  42. disorder of the development of cartilage at the epiphyses of the long bones and skull, resulting in dwarfism
    achondroplasia
  43. condition of the joining of the fingers or toes, giving them a webbed appearance
    syndactyly
  44. deformity resulting in abnormal twisting of the foot
    talipes
  45. abnormal condition of a joint
    arthrosis
  46. joint disease characterized by degenerative articular cartilage and a wearing down of the bones edges at a joint
    osteoarthritis (OA)

    also called degenerative joint disease
  47. inflammatory joint disease believed to be autoimmune in nature; occurs in a much younger population (ages 20-45) than OA
    rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  48. protrusion of the central part of the disk that lies between the vertebrae, resulting in compression of the nerve root and pain
    herniated intervertebral disk
  49. extreme posterior curvature of the thoracic area of the spine
    kyphosis
  50. exaggerated anterior curve of the lumbar vertebrae
    lordosis

    swayback
  51. lateral S curve of the spine that can cause and individual to lose inches in height
    scoliosis
  52. an abnormal condition characterized by stiffening of the vertebral joints
    spondylosis
  53. inflammation of the bursa
    bursitis
  54. disorder characterized by musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, muscle stiffness and spasms, and sleep disturbances
    fibromyalgia
  55. inflammation of the tendon on the outer side of the elbow accompanied by pain and tenderness
    lateral epicondylitis

    tennis elbow
  56. inflammation of the fascia on the sole of the foot
    plantar fasciitis
  57. inflammation of a tendon
    tendonitis
  58. softening of the bone caused by loss of minerals from the bony matrix as a result of vitamin D deficiency
    osteomalacia

    rickets in childhood
  59. inflammation of the bone and bone marrow
    osteomyelitis
  60. loss of bone mass, which results in the bones being fragile and at risk for fractures
    osteoporosis
  61. fracture in which broken bones are still in alignment
    nondisplaced fx
  62. fx in which broken bones are not in alignment
    displaced fx
  63. traumatic injury to a joint involving the ligaments.
    sprain
  64. injury described as overuse of overstretching of a muscle or tendon
    strain
  65. a bone that is completely out of its place in a jointis
    dislocation
  66. a bone that is partially out of its joint is
    subluxation
  67. malignant tumor of bone. most common children's bone cancer
    osteosarcoma
  68. reconstruction of the acetabulum to correct hip dysplasia, remove metastatic lesions, or as part of a hip replacement surgery
    acetabuloplasty
  69. minimally invasive procedure designed to address the pain of fractured vertebrae resulting from osteoporosis or cancer. a balloon is used to inflate the area of fracture before a cementlike substance is injected. the substance hardens rapidly, and pain relief is immediate in most patients
    kyphoplasty
  70. surgical fracture of a bone to correct malformation
    osteoclasis
  71. fixing the kneecap to the femur to stabilize the joint
    patellapexy
  72. binding the vertebrae togethe to stabilzie the spine
    spondylosyndesis

    also spinal fushion or spondylodesis
  73. if a bone does not mend and realign correctly  it is a
    malunion
  74. noninvasive reposition and stabilization of broken bones in which no opening is made in the skin. instead, the stabilization  takes place mainly through devices external to teh body that offer traction
    external fixation
  75. reposition and stabilization of broken bones in their correct position, using devices such as pins, screws, plates, and so on, which are fastened to teh bones to maintain correct alignment
    internal fixation
  76. alignment and immobilization of the ends of a broken bone
    reduction

    manipulation
  77. surgical puncture of a  joint to remove fluid, pus, or blood
    arthrocentesis
  78. binding a joint in order to stabilize it
    arthrodesis
  79. surgically forming a joint
    arthroplasty
  80. cutting out part or all of a bursa
    bursectomy
  81. recording the electrical activity of skeletal muscles.
    electromyography (EMG)
  82. surgical repair of a muscle and a tendon

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