Biology Test 3

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Biology Test 3
2013-11-11 23:48:05

review questions
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  1. What is taxonomy?
    the practice and science of the classification of things or concepts
  2. List the major taxons ( biological ranks) in order from largest to smallest.
    Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
  3. What are the two parts of the scientific name and what is the correct way of writing it?
    (genus, species)
  4. What is the difference between radial and bilateral symmetry?
    • Radial: the body is constructed across a central axis; do not have a head (ex: starfish, jellyfish)
    • Bilateral: body consists of 2 sides that can be divided by a plane and are mirror images of each other; have a head and tail end (ex: most animals)
  5. What organisms have cells that lack a nucleus?
  6. What is meant by the binomial nomenclature, and who is credited for first using it?
    • the Latin two part system of naming organisms
    • Linnaeus
  7. What group of protists photosynthesizes?
  8. The lichen are formed as a result of a relationship between a(n)_____ and a(n) __________.
    algae and fungi
  9. What algae is most similar to the plants?
    green algae
  10. What is the substance extracted from red algae that is used as a growth media for bacteria?
  11. What are the main features of the fungi?
    • eukaryotes
    • heterotrophs
    • made up of a mass of filaments (hypha) called mycelium
    • cell walls contain chitin
    • energy stored as glycogen
  12. Ascomycetes produce spores in _________. Basidiomycetes produce spores on a __________.
    • sacs
    • clubs
  13. Which algae has silica in its cell walls?
  14. Algae that possess two flagella perpendicular to each other are the __________.
  15. Protozoans which move and engulf food by forming pseudopods are ________.
  16. Rod-shaped bacteria are called __________.  Spherical bacteria are __________.
    • bacilli
    • cocci
  17. Do bacteria reproduce primarily asexually or sexually?
    asexually by mitosis
  18. What organisms represent the bottom (autotrophs) of an aquatic food chain?
  19. What type of protozoan is the paramecium?
  20. Are seaweed plants?
    no, they are brown algae
  21. Contrast the habitats of brown and red algae.
    • Brown: cold ocean waters
    • Red: warm seawater
  22. What organisms are the primary decomposers of dead plant and animal tissue?
    heterotrophic bacteria and fungi
  23. Contrast the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
    • Eukaryotic: have a nucleus and organelles; protists, plants, fungi, and animals
    • Prokaryotic: have genetic material but no nucleus or organelles; have ribosomes, plasma membrane, and cell wall; archaea and bacteria
  24. Organisms that maintain a constant body temperature are called __________.
  25. Name the vertebrate classes that contain birds, sharks, bony fish, lamprey, amphibians and reptiles.
    • Birds: Class Aves
    • Sharks: Class Chondrichthyes
    • Bony Fish: Class Osteichthyes
    • Lamprey: Class Agnatha
    • Amphibians: Class Amphibia
    • Reptiles: Class Reptilia
  26. What are the four distinguishing features of the chordates?
    • Presence or absence of a body cavity (coelem)
    • Segmentation
    • Natochord
    • Pharynx
  27. What is a distinguishing feature of all mammals?
    • hair
    • mammary glands
  28. In higher animals what does one call the space between the digestive tract and the body wall?
  29. What do vertebrates have that invertebrates do not?
    backbone/internal skeleton
  30. What are the two stages in the life cycle of cnidarians?Do cnidarians reproduce sexually or asexually?
    • medusa and polyp
    • asexually
  31. What is plankton?  phytoplankton?
    • plankton: a mixture of different kinds of small animals that drift with the currents and feed on phytoplankton and other zooplankton
    • phytoplankton: photosynthetic organisms suspended in water that are an important source of food and oxygen for heterotrophs
  32. How many pairs of legs and antennae do insects have?  arachnids?
    • Insects: 3 pair of legs; 1 pair
    • Arachnids: 4 pair of legs; none
  33. What are the three segments of the arthropod body?
    head, thorax, abdomen
  34. What aquatic organisms have a soft body enclosed by a hard shell?  Give examples.
    • mollusca
    • chitons, bivalves, snails, octopus, squid
  35. Are metabolic rates higher for homeotherms or poikilotherms?
    homeotherms, because they use metabolic energy to maintain their constant body temperature
  36. Are birds and mammals homeotherms or poikilotherms?
  37. In what type of habitat do amphibians reproduce?
  38. What are chilopods?  diplopods?
    • chilopods: centipedes
    • diplopods: millipedes
  39. What phylum are the flatworms classified in?  What is an example of a free-living flatworm?
    • Phylum Platyhelminthes
    • a fluke
  40. The nematodes are __________ worms.
    unsegmented roundworms
  41. What is the largest group (phylum) of animals in terms of the number of species?
    Phylum Chordata
  42. Benthic animals which have spiny skin are the __________.  Give examples.
    • Echinoderms
    • sea urchin, starfish
  43. Which two types of flatworms are parasitic?
    • tapeworms
    • flukes
  44. What is an exoskeleton and which organisms possess it?
    • an external skeleton
    • arthropods and nematods (unsegmented roundworms)
  45. Which groups of organisms produce amniotic eggs?
  46. What is the significance of an amniotic egg?
    made development on land possible and eliminated the need for a swimming larval stage
  47. Sugars move down plants through the ______.  Water and nutrients move up through the ______.
    • Phloem
    • Xylem
  48. Name the parts of a leaf and their function.
    • Phloem: vascular tissue; transports amino acids and sugars from leaves to the rest of the plant
    • Xylem: vascular tissue; transports water and minerals from soil to leaves
    • Stomate: allows water and oxygen to exit the leaves
    • Guard Cells: open and close stomata
    • Mesophyll: maintains shape
    • Epidermis: protects and water preservation
    • Cuticle: protects and water preservation
  49. What is the function of roots?
    • anchor the plant
    • absorption of water and nutrients from the soil
    • store (carbohydrates during winter)
  50. The most abundant plants are the  _______________.
    angiosperms (produce seeds; flowers, trees (not evergreen), food crops)
  51. How do monocots and dicots differ?
    • monocots: 1 cotyledon (seed leaves); petals-multiples of 3, sporradic vascular tissue, CANNOT be woody
    • dicots: 2 cotyledons; multiples f 4 and 5 petals, uniform vascular tissue; can produce wood
  52. What are stomates and what is their function?
    • openings in the bottom of the leaf
    • allow water and oxygen to exit the leaves and allow CO2 to enter to allow photosynthesis; can regulate water loss
  53. What are the two components of bark?
    bark and vascular cambium (cork)
  54. Contrast pollination and fertilization.
    • pollination: pollen touches stigma
    • fertilization: eggs meet the sperm
  55. What are the male and female parts of the flower?
    • male- surround pistil--stamens (filament and anther)
    • female- in the center--pistil (stigma, style, and ovary)
  56. What are the components of a seed?
    embryo, stored food,, protective outer coating (seed coat)
  57. What does the ovary of a flower become?
  58. Plants which do not produce seed and lack xylem and phloem are the _______________.
  59. Illustrate the life cycle of plants.
    • figure 22.13: fern
    • moss 22.4
    • angiosperm 22.20
    • gymnosperm
  60. The life cycle of plants alternates between the _____________ and _____________ generations.
    • sporophyte
    • gametophyte
  61. The haploid generation of plants is the ___________________.
  62. In plants, what is the product of meiosis?
    egg and pollen
  63. In flowering plants, what is the male and female gametophytes and where are they produced?
    • male: anther produces pollen which contains the sperm nucleus
    • female: ovary produces egg
  64. Where does fertilization occur in flowering plants?
  65. plants lacking xylem and phloem (vascular tissue)
  66. plants producing seed
    angiosperms and gymnosperms
  67. the flowering plants
  68. plants producing cones
  69. plants that produce fruit
  70. monocots and dicots are examples
  71. pine is a _______________.
  72. plants having large, conspicuous, green gametophytes
  73. bryophytes
  74. members of Phylum Anthophyta
  75. seedless vascular plants