osvaldo science exam nov 2014

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osvaldo science exam nov 2014
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  1. 6 levels of organisation of living things?
    • 1 - individual
    • 2-species
    • 3-population
    • 4 - community
    • 5-ecosystem
    • 6-biosphere
  2. an individual
    each being is an individual

    an ant, a lion
  3. species
    a group of organisms with the same characteristics that can reproduce
  4. population
    a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular place and time.

    for example the toucans in Monteverde, the children in the school.
  5. Community
    a group of populations of different species that live in the same place and time

    for example: the animals in a zoo
  6. Ecosystem
    all the living and nonliving things in an area.

    • includes BIOTIC =living things
    • and ABIOTIC= nonliving things like water and light.
  7. Biosphere
    the layer of earth where life is possible
  8. Components of an ecosystem: ABIOTIC factors (4)
    • 1 - air : provides oxygen, combined with food produces energy, necessary for photosynthesis
    • 2 - soil : has minerals and nutrients,
    • 3 - water : all living things need it
    • 4 - sunlight : source of energy
  9. components of an ecosystem: biotic factors

    living things; divide into 2 different types:
    autotrophs: producers - they make their own food - plants.

    heterotrophs : consumers - they feed from other organisms
  10. what is a food chain?
    it shows how each living thing gets what it needs to live.
  11. what is a food web?
    several food chains together
  12. 4 types of ecosystem in Costa Rica
    1 - dry tropical forest

    2 - tropical wet forest

    3 - cloud forest

    4 - tropical rain forest
  13. what aspects determine the weather? (3)
    1 - altitude - the height of a place

    2 - temperature - how hot or cold it is in a specific area

    3 - precipitation - the amount of rain
  14. An example of a tropical wet forest?

    A characteristic?
    San Carlos

    - lots of rain!
  15. An example of a cloud forest?
    Monteverde.

    - it is humid and cool
  16. An example of a Tropical Rain Forest?

    a characteristic?
    Sarapiquí

    it can be hot.
  17. give one example of an individual
    a pig
  18. give on example of a population
    the elephants in Africa.
  19. give an example of a community,
    the animals in a zoo
  20. give one example of an ecosystem
    a forest.
  21. write a characteristic of air:
    it is necessary for life. It produces oxygen, and combines with food to produce energy.
  22. write a characteristic of soil.
    • one of the  most important elements.
    • has minerals and nutrients.
  23. write a characteristic of water
    it is necessary for life.
  24. write a characteristic of sunlight
    necessary for all living things.

    plants need it for photosynthesis.
  25. an example of a herbivore
    a rabbit
  26. an example of a carnivore
    a lion
  27. an example of an omnivore
    a human
  28. an example of a decomposer
    fungus
  29. draw an example of a food chain
    the way energy goes around from producers to consumers

    grass - rabbit - a lion
  30. what is a food web
    a food web is made of several food chains together.
  31. what type of ecosystem is San Carlos
    tropical wet forest
  32. what type of ecosystem is sarapiqui?
    tropical rain forest.
  33. what type of ecosystem is Santa Rosa?
    Dry tropical forest
  34. What type of ecosystem is Upala?
    tropical wet forest
  35. what type of ecosystem is Monteverde?
    Cloud forest.
  36. what type of conservation area is Caño Negro
    National wildlife refuge
  37. what type of conservation area is Irazu?
    A National Park
  38. What type of conservation area is Carara?
    Biological Reserve
  39. What type of conservation area is Monteverde?
    A protective zone.
  40. What is matter?

    examples?
    It is what occupies physical space and has mass.

    stars, door, dog, air, water etc
  41. Can matter be created or destroyed?
    No, it can only be transformed.
  42. 4 Characteristics of matter?
    COLOR: a visual sensation produced by reflected light

    MASS: the matter that an object has, measured in kilograms

    WEIGHT: the gravitational force that attracts a body, measured in NEWTONS

    VOLUME: the space that a body occupies, its size. measured in cubic meters (m3)
  43. what is the difference between mass and weight?
    Mass is the matter that an object has

    and

    weight is the gravitational force that attracts a body
  44. What are ATOMS?

    Name the three parts of an atom
    The basic particles that form matter.

    PROTONS,

    NEUTRONS

    • and
    • ELECTRONS
  45. What is a proton?

    What is their charge?
    they are in the nucleus of the atom.

    Their charge is POSITIVE
  46. What is an electron?

    What is their charge?
    They orbit around the nucleus.

    They have a negative charge.
  47. What is a neutron?

    What is their charge?
    Neutrons are in the nucleus.

    They don't have a charge.
  48. What are the two kinds of matter?
    1. PURE SUBSTANCES

    2. MIXTURES
  49. Definition of PURE SUBSTANCES

    Examples?
    • They are materials with defined composition.
    • Their characteristics do not vary.
    • they can't be separated
    • They have constant properties. and chemical composition.

    Examples: water, diamonds.
  50. What are the two types of pure substances?

    Examples?
    • 1. Elements. made of only 1 kind of atom and cannot be decomposed into simpler subtances.
    • examples: gold, copper.

    • 2. Compounds: they are pure substances made by a combination of 2 or more elements. Their characteristics are different from their components.
    • they can be disintegrated into elements through chemical procedures.
    • Example: water.
  51. What are mixtures?
    • the union of two or more substances in variable amounts, but they are not chemically combined.
    • Each component of the mixture keeps its characteristics.
    • They can be homogeneous or heterogeneous.
  52. What is a homogeneous mixture?
    • they are UNIFORM and CONTINUOUS.
    • for example Water and Sugar.

    made of SOLVENT: in which the SOLUTE is dissolved.
  53. what are HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES?
    • They are un-uniform and discontinuous.
    • their composition is variable.

    example rice and beans.
  54. what are the 4 states of matter?
    solid, liquid, gas and plasma.
  55. what are the characteristics of a solid?

    examples?
    -they have a fixed shape and volume.

    examples: table. chair.
  56. what are the characteristics of a LIQUID?
    • the volume is defined, but the shape is not.
    • the shape is of the container.
    • they have a free surface.
  57. what are the characteristics of a GAS?
    • shape is not defined.
    • volume is not defined.

    example of gas: cooking gas.
  58. what are the characteristics of a PLASMA?
    It is made of ionized matter.

    examples: the earth's ionosphere, the sun's corona
  59. what are Physical changes?
    they are changes of form but not the identity of matter.

    for example, melting ice into water
  60. physical changes: what is MELTING?
    ice is changed to water

    from a solid to a liquid
  61. physical changes: what is BOILING?
    change from liquid to gas.

    boiling water.
  62. physical changes: what is CONDENSING?
    a gas changes to a liquid.
  63. physical changes: what is FREEZING or SOLIDIFICATION?
    Change from liquid to solid.

    from water to ice.
  64. physical changes: what is SUBLIMATION?
    The change from solid to gas

    example: dry ice
  65. physical changes: what is DEPOSITION?
    The change from gas to solid.

    water vapor to ice.
  66. physical changes: what is IONIZATION?
    the change from gas to plasma.
  67. physical changes: what is DEIONIZATION?
    the change from plasma to gas.

    motor
  68. What are physical changes?
    they are changes that alter the size, shape, location or physical state of a substance BUT not its chemical state.

    • for example from liquid to solid.
    • boiling water.
    • cutting paper.
  69. what are chemical changes?
    Changes that alter the chemical makeup of the substance.

    - if there are different chemicals, it's a chemical change.

    for example: you burn paper! it is ASH, not paper anymore.

    EATING food.
  70. signs that a chemical change has occured?
    • there is gas (bubbles)
    • creation or loss of heat
    • fire
    • rotting
    • decomposition
    • precipitation - lumps of sour milk
  71. TRUE OR FALSE:
    with a physical change no new chemical occurs?
    TRUE!
  72. TRUE OR FALSE
    With a chemical change, a chemical reaction occurs.
    TRUE!
  73. TRUE OR FALSE:
    With a physical change energy is either given off or absorbed.
    false.
  74. TRUE OR FALSE:
    A chemical change can be easily reversed.
    FALSE
  75. TRUE OR FALSE:
    Eating food can be considered both physical and chemical changes.
    • TRUE.

  76. What is the nervous system?
    It controls body movement, behavior and thought.

    It is an organ system that contains a network of specialized cells called neurons.
  77. The nervous system is divided into _________
    and __________.
    The nervous system is divided into the brain_and _the spinal cord.
  78. what are three types of drugs?
    1 - Depressants : you feel relaxed. examples, alcohol and cannabis

    2- Stimulants: stimulate the brain, increase body temperature etc. examples coffee, energy drinks

    3 - Hallucinogens : affect your perception. you see and hear things that are not there. examples: LSD, mushrooms
  79. What is the endocrine system?
    A system made of glands that helps balance the body's processes like growth and sugar level in the blood.
  80. What is a gland?
    An organ that produces a chemical substance.
  81. What does the pituitary control?
    • Development and growth,
    • it controls the thyroid,
    • the ovaries, testes and other glands.
  82. the pancreas controls...?
    the amount of glucose in the blood.
  83. The parathyroid controls.....?
    The amount of calcium and phosphorus in the blood.
  84. What is diabetes?
    a condition where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin to convert sugar into energy.
  85. Gigantism is an excess of ___________- hormone.
    Gigantism is an excess of growth hormone.
  86. In osteoporosis the bones....
    In osteoporosis the bones are fragile and break easily.
  87. Hyperthyroidism is an excess of ....
    Hyperthyroidism is an excess of thyroid hormone.
  88. what are the external female and male reproductive organs?
    female: vulva.

    male: penis and testicles.
  89. What are the internal male organs?
    • testicles,
    • epididymis,
    • vas deferens,
    • prostate gland,
    • seminal vesicle,
    • the urethra
  90. What are secondary sexual characteristics?
    Secondary sexual characteristics are related to each sex but not to sexual reproduction.
  91. Explain two male and two female secondary characteristics.
    Male: muscles, facial hair

    famale: breasts and hips, menstrual cycle
  92. What is the male hormone?
    Testosterone.
  93. What are the two female hormones?
    Estrogen

    and

    Progesterone
  94. what is puberty
    the time when all the changes of sexual maturity happen
  95. the primary sexual characteristics
    the organs of the reproductive system , for women and men.
  96. what are the female primary sexual characteristics?
    • the vagina,
    • the uterus,
    • the fallopian tubes,
    • the ovaries
    • and the cervix.
  97. the male reporoductive system
    includes the penis, the scrotum, and the testicles
  98. what is the vulva?
    • the external part of the female reproductive organs.
    • located between the legs, it covers the vagina.
  99. what is the vagina?
    a hollow muscular tube that extends from the vaginal opening to the cervix.
  100. what is the uterus?
    is shaped like a pear; it contains some of the strongest muscles in the femail body
  101. what are the fallopian tubes?
    tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus.
  102. what are ovaries?
    two oval shaped organs that produce, store and relaease eggs into the fallopian tubes in the process called ovulation
  103. the three parts of the penis?
    • the root: attached to the abdomen
    • the body:
    • the glans: a cone-shaped part at the end
  104. what is a scrotum:
    • a loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs below the penis.
    • -it contains the testicles. (also called the testes)
  105. what do the testes or testicles do?
    • - make testosterone, the primary make sex hormone
    • - generate sperm
  106. what is the epididymis?
    it is where the spermatzoids are
  107. what is the urethra?
    • it travels thourgh the penis,
    • it carries semen and urine.
  108. what is the prostate?
    It makes a white fluid that is 20-30% of the volume of semen with spermatozoa and seimal vesicle fluid.
  109. What are the seminal vesicles?
    they are 2 glands the make a significant portion of the fluid that becomes semen.
  110. what age does puberty start in girls?
    around 11 years old.
  111. what age does puberty start in boys?
    around 13 in boys.
  112. changes to girls in puberty?
    • -they grow taller
    • -the breasts grow
    • -the body changes
    • -the hips get rounder
    • -public hair grows
    • -the menstrual cycle starts
  113. what is the menstrual cycle?
    a small amount of blood from the vagina every month
  114. What changes happen to boys in puberty?
    • -the penis and the testicles grow
    • -pubic and body hair grows
    • -the voice changes
    • -hair grows on the face
    • -
  115. what is a hormone?
    a chemical substance produced by an endocrine gland that has a specific effect on the body
  116. estrogen
    • the sex hormone produced primarily by the ovaries
    • -stimulate the growth of the sex organs, the breasts and pubic hair
    • -regulate the functioning of the menstrual cycle
  117. progesterone
    a steriod hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle and preganancy
  118. emotional changes that happen in puberty
    • - more independent
    • -mood changes (different strong emotions)
    • -depression about body changes and school pressure
  119. how does the menstrual cycle start?
    • estrogen production increase in the girl's body
    • -the egg travels in the fallopian tubes for 3 or 4 days
  120. days 1 to 5 of the menstrual cycle:
    the period begins
  121. days 6 to 13 of the menstrual cycle
    the egg matures
  122. days 15 to 22 of the menstral cycle
    • day 14 - ovulation happens
    • the egg starts to move through the fallopian tubes to the uterus
  123. days 23 to 28 of the menstrual cycle
    the not fertilized egg gets to the uterus
  124. what is FECUNDATION
    when the sperm joins with the egg in the fallopian tube, and a new being starts to grow in the uterus
  125. what is pregnancy?
    how long does it take?
    • the process since fecundation until delivery of the baby.
    • it takes 9 months.
  126. what are the symptoms of pregancy
    • nausea and vomitting
    • changes in sleeping,
    • the menstrual period stops,
    • headaches and cramps
    • the stomach grows
  127. development of the baby in pregnancy:
    9 months
    • the baby finishes its development and is ready to be born
    • - around 50 cm size
  128. precautions during pregancy
    • -do exercise
    • -visit the doctor a lot
    • -eat fruit and vegetables
    • -drink the correct medicines
    • -don't drink alcohol
    • -be calm
    • don't smoke
  129. the delivery of the baby
    happens at 9 months
  130. the 1st stage of delivery
    • dilation:
    • -the uterus makes contractions to push the baby out
    • -the cervix opens to 10 cm
  131. second stage of delivery
    • fetal expulsion:
    • -the cervix is fully dilated
    • -the baby emerges
  132. third stage of delivery
    the umbilical cord and the placenta emerge
  133. What is energy?
    the ability to do work.
  134. What is potencial energy?
    • It's stored energy like
    • *the energy of the water in a dam.
    • *the gas in a car
  135. kintetic energy
    the energy of motion and movement.
  136. What is radiant energy
    the energy of light. for example, the sun
  137. mechanical energy
    the energy of motion. for example when you run.
  138. nuclear energy
    • created in power plants
    • by dividing the atom
  139. gravitational energy
    • the energy produced by gravity.
    • example is the earth's gravitational force.
  140. chemical energy
    • chemical reaction that causes changes.
    • can be in food or fuel.
    • for example, a battery, sugar
  141. electrical energy
    when motion, light or heat is produced by an electrical current
  142. thermal energy
    when tempreture or motion is caused by heat
  143. sound energy
    • energy produced by sound vibrations
    • for example, the radio
  144. magnetic energy
    • the ability to attract or repell because of a magnetic field.
    • for example a magnet.
  145. wind energy
    the wind is used to produce for example electricity
  146. geothermic energy
    • heat from the earth.
    • examples hot springs.
  147. seismic energy
    energy produced by earthquakes.
  148. 1. What is the nervous system?
    • A network of cells and neurons.
    • It controls body movement and thought.
  149. The specialized cells of the nervous system are called ____________
    neurons.
  150. what are the names of the three parts of the neuron
  151. What are the synapses?
    Synapses are connections between different neurons to transmit information.
  152. Write the name of the two main parts of the nervous system.
    - the Central Nervous System (CNS)

    and

    - the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  153. What are the main components of the Central Nervous System?
    • the brain
    • - the spinal cord.
  154. What is the main component of the Peripheral Nervous System?
    Nerves.
  155. What is the function of the brain stem?
    It maintains blood pressure, heartbeat, respiration and digestion.
  156. What is the main function of the Cerebellum?
    It controls balance and posture and helps movement.
  157. What is the main function of the cerebrum?
    It interprets information from the senses, controls muscles, thinking and language.
  158. What is the main function of the Spinal Cord?
    It sends information from the nerves to the brain.
  159. Why is the brain important?
    You need your brain to think, to act, to move, even to breathe and for your blood to circulate. You can't live if you have no brain.
  160. 4 actions to contribute to the right functioning of the nervous system?
    • - Don't take drugs.
    • - Drink lots of water.
    • - Do excercise.
    • - Eat a good diet with lots of fruit and vegetables.
  161. 4 consequences of consuming drugs for the nervous system.
    • - neurons die.
    • - you can lose your memory
    • - you can have accidents
    • - motor coordination can be damaged
  162. explain 3 drugs and give examples
    1 - depressants: they make you relax. examples alcohol, and cannabis.

    2- stimulants: they stimulate the brain and increase the heart rate and blood pressure. examples: caffeine in coffee.

    3 - Hallucinogens: they affect the perception, you see imaginary things. Examples: LSD and magic mushrooms.
  163. 4 ways to prevent the consumption of drugs in young people.
    • 1 -Do exercise and sport.
    • 2 -Focus on your life objectives.
    • 3- Don't be with people who take drugs.
    • 4- spend time with your family.
  164. What is the main function of the endocrine system?
    It controls cell growth through hormones and glands.
  165. What is a gland?
    A gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes chemicals.
  166. What is a hormone?
    Chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body.
  167. How do hormones travel in the body?
    In the blood.
  168. What main hormone is produced by the pituitary gland?
    growth hormone.
  169. What hormone is produced by the testes?
    testosterone, the male sex hormone
  170. What main hormone is produced in the ovaries?
    oestrogen
  171. What hormone is produced by the pancreas?
    insulin
  172. it controls the amount of glucose in the blood
    pancreas
  173. They control female characteristics and the menstrual cycle
    ovaries
  174. it controls body growth and development
    Pituitary gland
  175. It controls how cells release energy
    Thyroid
  176. it controls the body's reaction to anger, fright or fear
    the adrenal gland
  177. They control male characeristics
    the testes
  178. it controls the amount of calcium and phosphorous in the blood
    Parathyroid
  179. locate the 7 glands in the body
  180. What gland and hormone are related with diabetes?
    • gland is the pancreas
    • hormone is insulin
  181. Gigantism is caused because of an excess of which hormone?
    growth hormone
  182. Growth disorders are related to which gland?
    the pituitary gland
  183. Which two glands are related to osteoporosis?
    • the thyroid gland
    • the pituitary
  184. What is osetoporosis
    it is weak bones
  185. an excess of thyroid hormone results in
    Hyperthyroidism.
  186. A deficiency of thyroid hormone results in
    hipothyroidism
  187. What does the big bang theory refer to?
    A theory about the beginning of the universe, time and space.

    It was a detonation or flash.

    A dense hot ball of hydrogen and helium began expanding quickly.

    Like an expansion of time and space.
  188. What is the main difference between the Steady State Universe and the
    In the big bang theory, the density of matter is expanding.

    In steady state universe, the density of matter is constant over time. the universe is constant it doesn't begin or end.
  189. Why is the moon important to life on earth?
    • it gives us the tides and
    • regulates the orbit of the planet.
  190. What abiotic factors are important to life on earth?
    Light: we need it for energy, it controls biological rhythms.

    Heat: necessary for animals and plants

    Atmosphere: to protect from dangerous rays from the sun, and to breathe.

    Water: all living beings need water to survive, we need it in many organic processes
  191. What is matter?

    examples?
    It is what occupies physical space and has mass.

    stars, door, dog, air, water etc
  192. Can matter be created or destroyed?
    No, it can only be transformed.
  193. 4 Characteristics of matter?
    COLOR: a visual sensation produced by reflected light

    MASS: the matter that an object has, measured in kilograms

    WEIGHT: the gravitational force that attracts a body, measured in NEWTONS

    VOLUME: the space that a body occupies, its size. measured in cubic meters (m3)
  194. what is the difference between mass and weight?
    Mass is the matter that an object has

    and

    weight is the gravitational force that attracts a body
  195. What are ATOMS?

    Name the three parts of an atom
    The basic particles that form matter.

    PROTONS,

    NEUTRONS

    • and
    • ELECTRONS
  196. What is a proton?

    What is their charge?
    they are in the nucleus of the atom.

    Their charge is POSITIVE
  197. What is an electron?

    What is their charge?
    They orbit around the nucleus.

    They have a negative charge.
  198. What is a neutron?

    What is their charge?
    Neutrons are in the nucleus.

    They don't have a charge.
  199. What are the two kinds of matter?
    1. PURE SUBSTANCES

    2. MIXTURES
  200. Definition of PURE SUBSTANCES

    Examples?
    • They are materials with defined composition.
    • Their characteristics do not vary.
    • they can't be separated
    • They have constant properties. and chemical composition.

    Examples: water, diamonds.
  201. What are the two types of pure substances?

    Examples?
    • 1. Elements. made of only 1 kind of atom and cannot be decomposed into simpler subtances.
    • examples: gold, copper.

    • 2. Compounds: they are pure substances made by a combination of 2 or more elements. Their characteristics are different from their components.
    • they can be disintegrated into elements through chemical procedures.
    • Example: water.
  202. What are mixtures?
    • the union of two or more substances in variable amounts, but they are not chemically combined.
    • Each component of the mixture keeps its characteristics.
    • They can be homogeneous or heterogeneous.
  203. What is a homogeneous mixture?
    • they are UNIFORM and CONTINUOUS.
    • for example Water and Sugar.

    made of SOLVENT: in which the SOLUTE is dissolved.
  204. what are HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES?
    • They are un-uniform and discontinuous.
    • their composition is variable.

    example rice and beans.
  205. what are the 4 states of matter?
    solid, liquid, gas and plasma.
  206. what are the characteristics of a solid?

    examples?
    -they have a fixed shape and volume.

    examples: table. chair.
  207. what are the characteristics of a LIQUID?
    • the volume is defined, but the shape is not.
    • the shape is of the container.
    • they have a free surface.
  208. what are the characteristics of a GAS?
    • shape is not defined.
    • volume is not defined.

    example of gas: cooking gas.
  209. what are the characteristics of a PLASMA?
    It is made of ionized matter.

    examples: the earth's ionosphere, the sun's corona
  210. what are the physical properties of matter?

    examples
    the ones that do not change the chemical nature of matter.

    examples: color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, attraction to magnets.
  211. What are the chemical properties of matter?

    examples
    they change the chemical nature of matter.

    heat of combustion, reactivity with water, PH, electromotive force.
  212. what are Physical changes?
    they are changes of form but not the identity of matter.

    for example, melting ice into water
  213. physical changes: what is MELTING?
    ice is changed to water

    from a solid to a liquid
  214. physical changes: what is BOILING?
    change from liquid to gas.

    boiling water.
  215. physical changes: what is CONDENSING?
    a gas changes to a liquid.
  216. physical changes: what is FREEZING or SOLIDIFICATION?
    Change from liquid to solid.

    from water to ice.
  217. physical changes: what is SUBLIMATION?
    The change from solid to gas

    example: dry ice
  218. physical changes: what is DEPOSITION?
    The change from gas to solid.

    water vapor to ice.
  219. physical changes: what is IONIZATION?
    the change from gas to plasma.
  220. physical changes: what is DEIONIZATION?
    the change from plasma to gas.

    motor
  221. What are physical changes?
    they are changes that alter the size, shape, location or physical state of a substance BUT not its chemical state.

    • for example from liquid to solid.
    • boiling water.
    • cutting paper.
  222. what are chemical changes?
    Changes that alter the chemical makeup of the substance.

    - if there are different chemicals, it's a chemical change.

    for example: you burn paper! it is ASH, not paper anymore.

    EATING food.
  223. signs that a chemical change has occured?
    • there is gas (bubbles)
    • creation or loss of heat
    • fire
    • rotting
    • decomposition
    • precipitation - lumps of sour milk
  224. TRUE OR FALSE:
    with a physical change no new chemical occurs?
    TRUE!
  225. TRUE OR FALSE
    With a chemical change, a chemical reaction occurs.
    TRUE!
  226. TRUE OR FALSE:
    With a physical change energy is either given off or absorbed.
    false.
  227. TRUE OR FALSE:
    A chemical change can be easily reversed.
    FALSE
  228. TRUE OR FALSE:
    Eating food can be considered both physical and chemical changes.
    TRUE.

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