Subsidence & Soil ND Test 2
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What does a soil scientist define soil as?
solid earth material that has been altered by physical, chemical, and organic sources and supports rooted plant life
What does an engineer define soil as?
any solid earth material that can removed without blasting
What does soil development depend on?
- parent material
- organic processes
What are the most common soil horizons?
- O horizon
- A horizon
- E horizon
- B horizon
- C horizon
- R horizon
What is the O horizon?
- mostly organic materials
- darker color
What is the A horizon?
- made of mineral and organic materials
- often light black to brown
What is the E horizon?
- light colored materials
- leeching occurs between A and E
What is the B horizon?
known as the zone of accumulation
What is the C horizon?
partially altered parent material
What is the R horizon?
unaltered parent material
What is karst topography?
- landscape formed from the dissolving of water soluble rocks beneath the surface
- occurs as percolating surface water moves through rock that is easily dissolved
What are the causes of subsidence?
- erosion of underground soil/rock caused by leaking sewer pipes or water manes
- dissolution of carbonate rocks beneath the surface (sink holes)
What is subsidence?
the sudden collapse of ground to from a depression
What rocks are easily dissolved underground?
- rock salt
- rock gypsum
What are the effects of subsidence?
- sinkhole formation
- groundwater conditions
- melting permafrost
- coastal flooding & loss of wetlands
What occurs in a sinkhole?
underground caverns that were once filled with water lose their water and the ground above collapses causing a sinkhole
What happens with groundwater conditions?
ground water can become polluted
What are the effects of melting permafrost?
- roads cave in
- airport runways to fracture
- railroad tracks to buckle
- buildings to crack, tilt or collapse
What are the effects of coastal flooding & loss of wetlands?
coastal cities are sinking because of the rising water levels
Why is soil volume change important?
responsible for damage that costs more than all natural hazards combined
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