Subsidence & Soil ND Test 2

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  1. What does a soil scientist define soil as?
    solid earth material that has been altered by physical, chemical, and organic sources and supports rooted plant life
  2. What does an engineer define soil as?
    any solid earth material that can removed without blasting
  3. What does soil development depend on?
    • climate
    • topography
    • parent material
    • time
    • organic processes
  4. What are the most common soil horizons?
    • O horizon
    • A horizon
    • E horizon
    • B horizon
    • C horizon
    • R horizon
  5. What is the O horizon?
    • mostly organic materials
    • darker color
  6. What is the A horizon?
    • made of mineral and organic materials
    • often light black to brown
  7. What is the E horizon?
    • light colored materials
    • leeching occurs between A and E
  8. What is the B horizon?
    known as the zone of accumulation
  9. What is the C horizon?
    partially altered parent material
  10. What is the R horizon?
    unaltered parent material
  11. What is karst topography?
    • landscape formed from the dissolving of water soluble rocks beneath the surface
    • occurs as percolating surface water moves through rock that is easily dissolved
  12. What are the causes of subsidence?
    • erosion of underground soil/rock caused by leaking sewer pipes or water manes
    • dissolution of carbonate rocks beneath the surface (sink holes)
  13. What is subsidence?
    the sudden collapse of ground to from a depression
  14. What rocks are easily dissolved underground?
    • rock salt
    • rock gypsum
    • limestone
    • dolostone
    • marble
  15. What are the effects of subsidence?
    • sinkhole formation
    • groundwater conditions
    • melting permafrost
    • coastal flooding & loss of wetlands
  16. What occurs in a sinkhole?
    underground caverns that were once filled with water lose their water and the ground above collapses causing a sinkhole
  17. What happens with groundwater conditions?
    ground water can become polluted
  18. What are the effects of melting permafrost?
    • roads cave in
    • airport runways to fracture
    • railroad tracks to buckle
    • buildings to crack, tilt or collapse
  19. What are the effects of coastal flooding & loss of wetlands?
    coastal cities are sinking because of the rising water levels
  20. Why is soil volume change important?
    responsible for damage that costs more than all natural hazards combined
Card Set:
Subsidence & Soil ND Test 2
2013-11-11 22:38:10
subsidence soils

test 2
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